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Military Terms and Definitions

cache — A source of subsistence and supplies, typically containing items such as food,
water, medical items, and/or communications equipment, packaged to prevent damage
from exposure and hidden in isolated locations by such methods as burial, concealment,
and/or submersion, to support isolated personnel. See also concealment; evader;
evasion; recovery; recovery operations. (JP 3-50)

calibrated focal length — (*) An adjusted value of the equivalent focal length, so
computed as to equalize the positive and negative values of distortion over the entire
field used in a camera.

call fire — Fire delivered on a specific target in response to a request from the supported
unit. See also fire.

call for fire — (*) A request for fire containing data necessary for obtaining the required
fire on a target. (JP 3-09.1)

call sign — (*) Any combination of characters or pronounceable words, which identifies a
communication facility, a command, an authority, an activity, or a unit; used primarily
for establishing and maintaining communications. Also called CS. See also collective
call sign; indefinite call sign; international call sign; net call sign; tactical call sign;
visual call sign; voice call sign.

camera axis — (*) An imaginary line through the optical center of the lens perpendicular
to the negative photo plane.

camera axis direction — (*) Direction on the horizontal plane of the optical axis of the
camera at the time of exposure. This direction is defined by its azimuth expressed in
degrees in relation to true/magnetic north.

camera calibration — (*) The determination of the calibrated focal length, the location of
the principal point with respect to the fiducial marks and the lens distortion effective in
the focal plane of the camera referred to the particular calibrated focal length.

camera cycling rate — (*) The frequency with which camera frames are exposed,
expressed as cycles per second.

camera nadir — See photo nadir.

camouflage — (*) The use of natural or artificial material on personnel, objects, or tactical
positions with the aim of confusing, misleading, or evading the enemy.

camouflage detection photography — (*) Photography utilizing a special type of film
(usually infrared) designed for the detection of camouflage.

camouflet — (*) The resulting cavity in a deep underground burst when there is no rupture
of the surface. See also crater.

campaign — A series of related major operations aimed at achieving strategic and
operational objectives within a given time and space. See also campaign plan.
(JP 5-0)

campaign plan — A joint operation plan for a series of related major operations aimed at
achieving strategic or operational objectives within a given time and space. See also
campaign; campaign planning. (JP 5-0)

campaign planning — The process whereby combatant commanders and subordinate joint
force commanders translate national or theater strategy into operational concepts
through the development of an operation plan for a campaign. Campaign planning may
begin during contingency planning when the actual threat, national guidance, and
available resources become evident, but is normally not completed until after the
President or Secretary of Defense selects the course of action during crisis action
planning. Campaign planning is conducted when contemplated military operations
exceed the scope of a single major joint operation. See also campaign; campaign
plan. (JP 5-0)

canalize — To restrict operations to a narrow zone by use of existing or reinforcing
obstacles or by fire or bombing.

candidate target list — A list of objects or entities submitted by component commanders,
appropriate agencies, or the joint force commander’s staff for further development and
inclusion on the joint target list and/or restricted target list, or moved to the no-strike
list. Also called CTL. See also joint integrated prioritized target list; target, target
nomination list. (JP 3-60)

cannibalize — To remove serviceable parts from one item of equipment in order to install
them on another item of equipment.

cannot observe — (*) A type of fire control which indicates that the observer or spotter
will be unable to adjust fire, but believes a target exists at the given location and is of
sufficient importance to justify firing upon it without adjustment or observation.

cantilever lifting frame — Used to move Navy lighterage causeway systems on to and off
of lighter aboard ship (LASH) vessels. This device is suspended from the Morgan
LASH barge crane and can lift one causeway section at a time. It is designed to allow
the long sections to clear the rear of the ship as they are lowered into the water. Also
called CLF. See also causeway; lighterage. (JP 4-01.6

capability — The ability to execute a specified course of action. (A capability may or may
not be accompanied by an intention.)

capacity load (Navy) — The maximum quantity of all supplies (ammunition; petroleum,
oils, and lubricants; rations; general stores; maintenance stores; etc.) which each vessel
can carry in proportions prescribed by proper authority. See also wartime load.

capstone publications — The top joint doctrine publication in the hierarchy of joint
publications. The capstone publication links joint doctrine to national strategy and the
contributions of other government agencies, alliances, and coalitions, and reinforces
policy for command and control. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff signs this
publication, and it is intended to be used by combatant commanders, subunified
commanders, joint task force commanders, Service Chiefs, and Joint Staff directors.
See also joint publication; keystone publications. (CJCSI 5120.02A)

capstone requirements document — A document that contains performance-based
requirements to facilitate development of individual operational requirements
documents by providing a common framework and operational concept to guide their
development. Also called CRD.

capsule — (*) 1. A sealed, pressurized cabin for extremely high altitude or space flight
which provides an acceptable environment for man, animal, or equipment. 2. An
ejectable sealed cabin having automatic devices for safe return of the occupants to the

captive firing — (*) A firing test of short duration, conducted with the missile propulsion
system operating while secured to a test stand.
captured — See missing.

cardinal point effect — (*) The increased intensity of a line or group of returns on the
radarscope occurring when the radar beam is perpendicular to the rectangular surface of
a line or group of similarly aligned features in the ground pattern.

caretaker status — A nonoperating condition in which the installations, materiel, and
facilities are in a care and limited preservation status. Only a minimum of personnel is
required to safeguard against fire, theft, and damage from the elements.

cargo classification (combat loading) — The division of military cargo into categories for
combat loading aboard ships.

cargo increment number — A seven-character alphanumeric field that uniquely describes
a non-unit-cargo entry (line) in the Joint Operation Planning and Execution System
time-phased force and deployment data.

cargo outturn message — A brief message report transmitted within 48 hours of
completion of ship discharge to advise both the Military Sealift Command and the
terminal of loading of the condition of the cargo, including any discrepancies in the
form of overages, shortages, or damages between cargo as manifested and cargo as
checked at time of discharge.

cargo outturn report — A detailed report prepared by a discharging terminal to record
discrepancies in the form of over, short, and damaged cargo as manifested, and cargo
checked at a time and place of discharge from ship.

cargo sling — (*) A strap, chain, or other material used to hold cargo items securely which
are to be hoisted, lowered, or suspended.

cargo tie-down point — A point on military materiel designed for attachment of various
means for securing the item for transport.

cargo transporter — A reusable metal shipping container designed for worldwide surface
and air movement of suitable military supplies and equipment through the cargo
transporter service.

carpet bombing — (*) The progressive distribution of a mass bomb load upon an area
defined by designated boundaries, in such manner as to inflict damage to all portions

carrier air wing — Two or more aircraft squadrons formed under one commander for
administrative and tactical control of operations from a carrier.

carrier battle group — A standing naval task group consisting of a carrier, surface
combatants, and submarines as assigned in direct support, operating in mutual support
with the task of destroying hostile submarine, surface, and air forces within the group’s
assigned operational area and striking at targets along hostile shore lines or projecting
fire power inland. Also called CVBG. (JP 3-33)

carrier striking force — A naval task force composed of aircraft carriers and supporting
combatant ships capable of conducting strike operations.

cartridge actuated device — Small explosive devices used to eject stores from launched
devices, actuate other explosive systems, or provide initiation for aircrew escape
devices. Also called CAD. (JP 3-04)

CARVER — A special operations forces acronym used throughout the targeting and
mission planning cycle to assess mission validity and requirements. The acronym
stands for criticality, accessibility, recuperability, vulnerability, effect, and
recognizability. (JP 3-05.1)

case — 1. An intelligence operation in its entirety. 2. Record of the development of an
intelligence operation, including personnel, modus operandi, and objectives.

casual — See transient.

casualty — Any person who is lost to the organization by having been declared dead, duty
status – whereabouts unknown, missing, ill, or injured. See also casualty category;
casualty status; casualty type; duty status – whereabouts unknown; hostile
casualty; nonhostile casualty.

casualty category — A term used to specifically classify a casualty for reporting purposes
based upon the casualty type and the casualty status. Casualty categories include killed
in action, died of wounds received in action, and wounded in action. See also casualty;
casualty status; casualty type; duty status - whereabouts unknown; missing.

casualty evacuation — The unregulated movement of casualties that can include
movement both to and between medical treatment facilities. Also called CASEVAC.
See also casualty; evacuation; medical treatment facility. (JP 4-02)

casualty receiving and treatment ship — In amphibious operations, a ship designated to
receive, provide treatment for, and transfer casualties. (JP 3-02)

casualty status — A term used to classify a casualty for reporting purposes. There are
seven casualty statuses: (1) deceased; (2) duty status - whereabouts unknown; (3)
missing; (4) very seriously ill or injured; (5) seriously ill or injured; (6) incapacitating
illness or injury; and (7) not seriously injured. See also casualty; casualty category;
casualty type; deceased; duty status - whereabouts unknown; incapacitating
illness or injury; missing; not seriously injured; seriously ill or injured; very
seriously ill or injured.

casualty type — A term used to identify a casualty for reporting purposes as either a hostile
casualty or a nonhostile casualty. See also casualty; casualty category; casualty
status; hostile casualty; nonhostile casualty.

catalytic attack — An attack designed to bring about a war between major powers through
the disguised machinations of a third power.

catalytic war — Not to be used. See catalytic attack.

catapult — (*) A structure which provides an auxiliary source of thrust to a missile or
aircraft; must combine the functions of directing and accelerating the missile during its
travel on the catapult; serves the same functions for a missile as does a gun tube for a

catastrophic event — Any natural or man-made incident, including terrorism, which results
in extraordinary levels of mass casualties, damage, or disruption severely affecting the
population, infrastructure, environment, economy, national morale, and/or government
functions. (JP 3-28)

categories of data — In the context of perception management and its constituent
approaches, data obtained by adversary individuals, groups, intelligence systems, and
officials. Such data fall in two categories: a. information — A compilation of data
provided by protected or open sources that would provide a substantially complete
picture of friendly intentions, capabilities, or activities. b. indicators — Data derived
from open sources or from detectable actions that adversaries can piece together or
interpret to reach personal conclusions or official estimates concerning friendly
intentions, capabilities, or activities. (Note: In operations security, actions that convey
indicators exploitable by adversaries, but that must be carried out regardless, to plan,
prepare for, and execute activities, are called “observables.”) See also operations

causeway — A craft similar in design to a barge, but longer and narrower, designed to assist
in the discharge and transport of cargo from vessels. See also barge; watercraft.
(JP 4-01.6)

causeway launching area — An area located near the line of departure but clear of the
approach lanes, where ships can launch pontoon causeways. (JP 3-02)

caveat — A designator used with a classification to further limit the dissemination of
restricted information. (JP 3-07.4)

C-day — See times.

cease fire — 1. A command given to any unit or individual firing any weapon to stop
engaging the target. See also call for fire; fire mission. 2. A command given to air
defense artillery units to refrain from firing on, but to continue to track, an airborne
object. Missiles already in flight will be permitted to continue to intercept.

cease fire line — See armistice demarcation line. See also armistice; cease fire.
(JP 3-07.3)

ceiling — The height above the Earth’s surface of the lowest layer of clouds or obscuration
phenomena that is reported as “broken,” “overcast,” or “obscured” and not classified as
“thin” or “partial.”

celestial guidance — The guidance of a missile or other vehicle by reference to celestial

celestial sphere — (*) An imaginary sphere of infinite radius concentric with the Earth, on
which all celestial bodies except the Earth are imagined to be projected.

cell — A subordinate organization formed around a specific process, capability, or activity
within a designated larger organization of a joint force commander’s headquarters. A
cell usually is part of both a functional and traditional staff structures. (JP 3-33)

cell system — See net, chain, cell system.

censorship — See armed forces censorship; civil censorship; field press censorship;
national censorship; primary censorship; prisoner of war censorship; secondary

center — An enduring functional organization, with a supporting staff, designed to perform
a joint function within a joint force commander’s headquarters. (JP 3-33)

center of burst — See mean point of impact.

center of gravity — The source of power that provides moral or physical strength, freedom
of action, or will to act. Also called COG. See also decisive point. (JP 3-0)

centigray — (*) A unit of absorbed dose of radiation (one centigray equals one rad).
(JP 3-11)

central control officer — The officer designated by the amphibious task force commander
for the overall coordination of the waterborne ship-to-shore movement. The central
control officer is embarked in the central control ship. Also called CCO. (JP 3-02.2)

centralized control — 1. In air defense, the control mode whereby a higher echelon makes
direct target assignments to fire units. 2. In joint air operations, placing within one
commander the responsibility and authority for planning, directing, and coordinating a
military operation or group/category of operations. See also decentralized control.
(JP 3-30)

centralized receiving and shipping point — Actual location where containers with cargo
must be sorted before transshipment to the appropriate supply support activity or
owning unit. Single consignee cargo and ammunition will not pass through the
centralized receiving and shipping point. Cargo will be shipped directly to the owner
with the movement organization maintaining visibility, and ammunition will go directly
to the appropriate ammunition storage facility. Also called CRSP. (JP 4-01.7)

centrally managed item — An item of materiel subject to inventory control point
(wholesale level) management.

central procurement — The procurement of materiel, supplies, or services by an officially
designated command or agency with funds specifically provided for such procurement
for the benefit and use of the entire component or, in the case of single managers, for
the Military Departments as a whole.

chaff — Radar confusion reflectors, consisting of thin, narrow metallic strips of various
lengths and frequency responses, which are used to reflect echoes for confusion
purposes. Causes enemy radar guided missiles to lock on to it instead of the real
aircraft, ship, or other platform. See also deception; rope.

chain — See net, chain, cell system.

chain of command — (*) The succession of commanding officers from a superior to a
subordinate through which command is exercised. Also called command channel.

Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff instruction — A replacement document for all
types of correspondence containing Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff policy and
guidance that does not involve the employment of forces. An instruction is of
indefinite duration and is applicable to external agencies, or both the Joint Staff and
external agencies. It remains in effect until superseded, rescinded, or otherwise
canceled. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff instructions, unlike joint publications,
will not contain joint doctrine. Terminology used in these publications will be
consistent with JP 1-02. Also called CJCSI. See also Chairman of the Joint Chiefs
of Staff manual. (CJCSI 5120.02)

Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff manual — A document containing detailed
procedures for performing specific tasks that do not involve the employment of forces.
A manual is of indefinite duration and is applicable to external agencies or both the
Joint Staff and external agencies. It may supplement a Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of
Staff instruction or stand alone and remains in effect until superseded, rescinded, or
otherwise canceled. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff manuals, unlike joint
publications, will not contain joint doctrine. Terminology used in these publications
will be consistent with JP 1-02. Also called CJCSM. See also Chairman of the Joint
Chiefs of Staff instruction. (CJCSI 5120.02)

Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff memorandum of policy — A statement of policy
approved by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and issued for the guidance of
the Services, the combatant commands, and the Joint Staff.

Chairman’s program assessment — Provides the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff’s
personal appraisal on alternative program recommendations and budget proposals to
the Secretary of Defense for consideration in refining the defense program and budget
in accordance with 10 United States Code. The Chairman’s program assessment
comments on the risk associated with the programmed allocation of Defense resources
and evaluates the conformance of program objective memoranda to the priorities
established in strategic plans and combatant commanders’ priority requirements. Also
called CPA.

Chairman’s program recommendations — Provides the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of
Staff’s personal recommendations to the Secretary of Defense for the programming and
budgeting process before publishing the Defense Planning Guidance (DPG) in
accordance with 10 United States Code. The Chairman’s program recommendations
articulates programs the Chairman deems critical for the Secretary of Defense to
consider when identifying Department of Defense (DOD) priorities and performance
goals in the DPG and emphasizes specific recommendations that will enhance joint
readiness, promote joint doctrine and training, improve joint warfighting capabilities,
and satisfy joint warfighting requirements within DOD resource constraints and within
acceptable risk levels. Also called CPR.

chalk commander — (*) The commander of all troops embarked under one chalk number.
See also chalk number; chalk troops.

chalk number — (*) The number given to a complete load and to the transporting carrier.
See also chalk commander; chalk troops. (JP 3-17)

chalk troops — (*) A load of troops defined by a particular chalk number. See also chalk
commander; chalk number.

challenge — (*) Any process carried out by one unit or person with the object of
ascertaining the friendly or hostile character or identity of another. See also
countersign; password.

chancery — The building upon a diplomatic or consular compound which houses the
offices of the chief of mission or principal officer.

change detection — An image enhancement technique that compares two images of the
same area from different time periods. Identical picture elements are eliminated,
leaving signatures that have undergone change. (JP 2-03)

channel airlift — Common-user airlift service provided on a scheduled basis between two
points. There are two types of channel airlift. A requirements channel serves two or
more points on a scheduled basis depending upon the volume of traffic; a frequency
channel is time-based and serves two or more points at regular intervals.
characteristic actuation probability — In naval mine warfare, the average probability of
a mine of a given type being actuated by one run of the sweep within the characteristic
actuation width.

characteristic actuation width — In naval mine warfare, the width of path over which
mines can be actuated by a single run of the sweep gear.

characteristic detection probability — In naval mine warfare, the ratio of the number of
mines detected on a single run to the number of mines which could have been detected
within the characteristic detection width.

characteristic detection width — In naval mine warfare, the width of path over which
mines can be detected on a single run.

charged demolition target — (*) A demolition target on which all charges have been
placed and which is in the states of readiness, either state 1--safe, or state 2--armed.
See also state of readiness--state 1--safe; state of readiness--state 2--armed.

chart base — (*) A chart used as a primary source for compilation or as a framework on
which new detail is printed. Also called topographic base.

chart index — See map index.

chart location of the battery — See battery center.

chart series — See map; map series.

chart sheet — See map; map sheet.

check firing — In artillery, mortar, and naval gunfire support, a command to cause a
temporary halt in firing. See also cease fire; fire mission.

checkout — (*) A sequence of functional, operational, and calibrational tests to determine
the condition and status of a weapon system or element thereof.

checkpoint — (*) 1. A predetermined point on the surface of the Earth used as a means of
controlling movement, a registration target for fire adjustment, or reference for
location. 2. Center of impact; a burst center. 3. Geographical location on land or
water above which the position of an aircraft in flight may be determined by
observation or by electrical means. 4. A place where military police check vehicular
or pedestrian traffic in order to enforce circulation control measures and other laws,
orders, and regulations.

check sweeping — (*) In naval mine warfare, sweeping to check that no moored mines are
left after a previous clearing operation.

chemical agent — A chemical substance which is intended for use in military operations to
kill, seriously injure, or incapacitate mainly through its physiological effects. The term
excludes riot control agents when used for law enforcement purposes, herbicides,
smoke, and flames. See also chemical dose; chemical warfare; riot control agent.
(JP 3-11)

chemical agent cumulative action — The building up, within the human body, of small
ineffective doses of certain chemical agents to a point where eventual effect is similar
to one large dose.

chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear defense — Measures taken to minimize or
negate the vulnerabilities and/or effects of a chemical, biological, radiological, or
nuclear incident. Also called CBRN defense. (JP 3-11)

chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear environment — Conditions found in an
area resulting from immediate or persisting effects of chemical, biological, radiological,
or nuclear attacks or unintentional releases. Also called CBRN environment.
(JP 3-11)

chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear hazard — Chemical, biological,
radiological, and nuclear elements that could cause an adverse affect through their
accidental or deliberate release, dissemination, or impacts. Also called CBRN hazard.
(JP 3-11)

chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear protection — Measures that are taken to
keep chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear threats and hazards from having an
adverse effect on personnel, equipment, or critical assets and facilities. Also called
CBRN protection. (JP 3-11)

chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear sense — Activities that continually
provide chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear threat and hazard information
and intelligence in a timely manner to support the common operational picture. Also
called CBRN sense. (JP 3-11)

chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear shape — The command and control
activity that integrates the sense, shield, and sustain operational elements to
characterize chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear hazards and threats and
employ necessary capabilities to counter their effects. Also called CBRN shape.
(JP 3-11)

chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear shield — Individual and collective
protection measures essential to mitigating the effects of chemical, biological,
radiological, and nuclear hazards. Also called CBRN shield. (JP 3-11)

chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear sustain — The decontamination and
medical activities to restore combat power and continue operations. Also called CBRN
sustain. (JP 3-11)

chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high-yield explosive hazards — Those
chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high-yield explosive elements that pose
or could pose a hazard to individuals. Chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and
high-yield explosive hazards include those created from accidental releases, toxic
industrial materials (especially air and water poisons), biological pathogens, radioactive
matter, and high-yield explosives. Also included are any hazards resulting from the
deliberate employment of weapons of mass destruction during military operations.
Also called CBRNE hazards. (JP 3-07.2)

chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high-yield explosives consequence
management — The consequence management activities for all deliberate and
inadvertent releases of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high-yield
explosives that are undertaken when directed or authorized by the President. Also
called CBRNE CM. (JP 3-41)

chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, or high-yield explosives incident — An
emergency resulting from the deliberate or unintentional release of nuclear, biological,
radiological, or toxic or poisonous chemical materials, or the detonation of a high-yield
explosive. Also called CBRNE incident. (JP 3-28)

chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear incident — Any occurrence, resulting from
the use of chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear weapons and devices; the
emergence of secondary hazards arising from counterforce targeting; or the release of
toxic industrial materials into the environment, involving the emergence of chemical,
biological, radiological and nuclear hazards. (JP 3-11)

chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear weapon — A fully engineered assembly
designed for employment to cause the release of a chemical or biological agent or
radiological material onto a chosen target or to generate a nuclear detonation. Also
called CBRN weapon. (JP 3-11)

chemical dose — (*) The amount of chemical agent, expressed in milligrams, that is taken
or absorbed by the body.

chemical hazard — Any chemical manufactured, used, transported, or stored which can
cause death or other harm through toxic properties of those materials. This includes
chemical agents and chemical weapons (prohibited under the Chemical Weapons
Convention), as well as toxic industrial chemicals and toxic industrial materials. (JP 3-11)

chemical horn — (*) In naval mine warfare, a mine horn containing an electric battery, the
electrolyte for which is in a glass tube protected by a thin metal sheet. Also called
Hertz Horn.

chemical monitoring — (*) The continued or periodic process of determining whether or
not a chemical agent is present. See also chemical survey.

chemical survey — (*) The directed effort to determine the nature and degree of chemical
hazard in an area and to delineate the perimeter of the hazard area.

chemical warfare — All aspects of military operations involving the employment of lethal
and incapacitating munitions/agents and the warning and protective measures
associated with such offensive operations. Since riot control agents and herbicides are
not considered to be chemical warfare agents, those two items will be referred to
separately or under the broader term “chemical,” which will be used to include all types
of chemical munitions/agents collectively. Also called CW. See also chemical agent;
chemical dose; chemical weapon; riot control agent. (JP 3-11)

chemical weapon — Together or separately, (a) a toxic chemical and its precursors, except
when intended for a purpose not prohibited under the Chemical Weapons Convention;
(b) a munition or device, specifically designed to cause death or other harm through
toxic properties of those chemicals specified in (a), above, which would be released as
a result of the employment of such munition or device; (c) any equipment specifically
designed for use directly in connection with the employment of munitions or devices
specified in (b), above. See also chemical agent; chemical dose; chemical warfare;
riot control agent. (JP 3-11)

chief Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps censor — An officer appointed by the
commander of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps component of a unified
command to supervise all censorship activities of that Service.

chief of mission — The principal officer (the ambassador) in charge of a diplomatic facility
of the United States, including any individual assigned to be temporarily in charge of
such a facility. The chief of mission is the personal representative of the President to
the country of accreditation. The chief of mission is responsible for the direction,
coordination, and supervision of all US Government executive branch employees in
that country (except those under the command of a US area military commander). The
security of the diplomatic post is the chief of mission’s direct responsibility. Also
called COM. (JP 3-10)

chief of staff — The senior or principal member or head of a staff, or the principal assistant
in a staff capacity to a person in a command capacity; the head or controlling member
of a staff, for purposes of the coordination of its work; a position that in itself is without
inherent power of command by reason of assignment, except that which is invested in
such a position by delegation to exercise command in another’s name.

chronic radiation dose — A dose of ionizing radiation received either continuously or
intermittently over a prolonged period of time. A chronic radiation dose may be high
enough to cause radiation sickness and death but, if received at a low dose rate, a
significant portion of the acute cellular damage may be repaired. See also acute
radiation dose; radiation dose; radiation dose rate.

chuffing — (*) The characteristic of some rockets to burn intermittently and with an
irregular noise.

cipher — Any cryptographic system in which arbitrary symbols (or groups of symbols)
represent units of plain text of regular length, usually single letters; units of plain text
are rearranged; or both, in accordance with certain predetermined rules. See also

circular error probable — An indicator of the delivery accuracy of a weapon system, used
as a factor in determining probable damage to a target. It is the radius of a circle within
which half of a missile’s projectiles are expected to fall. Also called CEP. See also
delivery error; deviation; dispersion error; horizontal error.
civic action — See military civic action.

civil administration — An administration established by a foreign government in (1)
friendly territory, under an agreement with the government of the area concerned, to
exercise certain authority normally the function of the local government; or (2) hostile
territory, occupied by United States forces, where a foreign government exercises
executive, legislative, and judicial authority until an indigenous civil government can
be established. Also called CA. (JP 3-05)

civil affairs — Designated Active and Reserve Component forces and units organized,
trained, and equipped specifically to conduct civil affairs operations and to support
civil-military operations. Also called CA. See also civil affairs activities; civilmilitary
operations. (JP 3-57)

civil affairs activities — Activities performed or supported by civil affairs that (1) enhance
the relationship between military forces and civil authorities in areas where military
forces are present; and (2) involve application of civil affairs functional specialty skills,
in areas normally the responsibility of civil government, to enhance conduct of civilmilitary
operations. See also civil affairs; civil-military operations. (JP 3-57)

civil affairs agreement — An agreement that governs the relationship between allied armed
forces located in a friendly country and the civil authorities and people of that country.
See also civil affairs.

civil affairs operations — Those military operations conducted by civil affairs forces that
(1) enhance the relationship between military forces and civil authorities in localities
where military forces are present; (2) require coordination with other interagency
organizations, intergovernmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations,
indigenous populations and institutions, and the private sector; and (3) involve
application of functional specialty skills that normally are the responsibility of civil
government to enhance the conduct of civil-military operations. Also called
CAO. (JP 3-57)

civil augmentation program — Standing, long-term external support contacts designed to
augment Service logistic capabilities with contracted support in both preplanned and
short notice contingencies. Examples include US Army Logistics Civil Augmentation
Program, Air Force Contract Augmentation Program, and US Navy Global
Contingency Capabilities Contracts. Also called CAP. See also contingency;
contingency contract; external support contract. (JP 4-10)

civil authorities — Those elected and appointed officers and employees who constitute the
government of the United States, the governments of the 50 states, the District of
Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, United States possessions and
territories, and political subdivisions thereof. (JP 3-28)

civil censorship — Censorship of civilian communications, such as messages, printed
matter, and films entering, leaving, or circulating within areas or territories occupied or
controlled by armed forces. See also censorship.

civil damage assessment — An appraisal of damage to a nation’s population, industry,
utilities, communications, transportation, food, water, and medical resources to support
planning for national recovery. See also damage assessment.

civil defense — All those activities and measures designed or undertaken to: a. minimize
the effects upon the civilian population caused or which would be caused by an enemy
attack on the United States; b. deal with the immediate emergency conditions that
would be created by any such attack; and c. effectuate emergency repairs to, or the
emergency restoration of, vital utilities and facilities destroyed or damaged by any such

civil defense emergency — See domestic emergencies.

civil defense intelligence — The product resulting from the collection and evaluation of
information concerning all aspects of the situation in the United States and its territories
that are potential or actual targets of any enemy attack including, in the preattack phase,
the emergency measures taken and estimates of the civil populations’ preparedness. In
the event of an actual attack, the information will include a description of conditions in
the affected area with emphasis on the extent of damage, fallout levels, and casualty
and resource estimates. The product is required by civil and military authorities for use
in the formulation of decisions, the conduct of operations, and the continuation of the
planning processes.

civil disturbance — (*) Group acts of violence and disorder prejudicial to public law and
order. See also domestic emergencies. (JP 3-28)

civil disturbance readiness conditions — Required conditions of preparedness to be
attained by military forces in preparation for deployment to an objective area in
response to an actual or threatened civil disturbance.

civil emergency — Any occasion or instance for which, in the determination of the
President, federal assistance is needed to supplement state and local efforts and
capabilities to save lives and to protect property and public health and safety, or to
lessen or avert the threat of a catastrophe in any part of the United States. (JP 3-28)

civilian internee — A civilian who is interned during armed conflict, occupation, or other
military operation for security reasons, for protection, or because he or she committed
an offense against the detaining power. Also called CI. (DODD 2310.01E)

civilian internee camp — An installation established for the internment and administration
of civilian internees.

civil-military medicine — A discipline within operational medicine comprising public
health and medical issues that involve a civil-military interface (foreign or domestic),
including military medical support to civil authorities (domestic), medical engagement
cooperation activities, and medical civil-military operations. (JP 4-02)

civil-military operations — The activities of a commander that establish, maintain,
influence, or exploit relations between military forces, governmental and
nongovernmental civilian organizations and authorities, and the civilian populace in a
friendly, neutral, or hostile operational area in order to facilitate military operations, to
consolidate and achieve operational US objectives. Civil-military operations may
include performance by military forces of activities and functions normally the
responsibility of the local, regional, or national government. These activities may occur
prior to, during, or subsequent to other military actions. They may also occur, if
directed, in the absence of other military operations. Civil-military operations may be
performed by designated civil affairs, by other military forces, or by a combination of
civil affairs and other forces. Also called CMO. See also civil affairs; operation.
(JP 3-57)

civil-military operations center — An organization normally comprised of civil affairs,
established to plan and facilitate coordination of activities of the Armed Forces of the
United States with indigenous populations and institutions, the private sector,
intergovernmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, multinational forces,
and other governmental agencies in support of the joint force commander. Also called
CMOC. See also civil affairs activities; civil-military operations; operation. (JP 3-57)

civil nuclear power — A nation that has the potential to employ nuclear technology for
development of nuclear weapons but has deliberately decided against doing so.

civil requirements — The necessary production and distribution of all types of services,
supplies, and equipment during periods of armed conflict or occupation to ensure the
productive efficiency of the civilian economy and to provide to civilians the treatment
and protection to which they are entitled under customary and conventional
international law.

civil reserve air fleet — A program in which the Department of Defense contracts for the
services of specific aircraft, owned by a US entity or citizen, during national
emergencies and defense-oriented situations when expanded civil augmentation of
military airlift activity is required. These aircraft are allocated, in accordance with
Department of Defense requirements, to segments, according to their capabilities, such
as international long range and short range cargo and passenger sections, national
(domestic and Alaskan sections) and aeromedical evacuation and other segments as
may be mutually agreed upon by the Department of Defense and the Department of
Transportation. Also called CRAF. See also reserve. (JP 3-17)

civil support — Department of Defense support to US civil authorities for domestic
emergencies, and for designated law enforcement and other activities. Also called CS.
See also military assistance to civil authorities. (JP 3-28)

civil transportation — The movement of persons, property, or mail by civil facilities, and
the resources (including storage, except that for agricultural and petroleum products)
necessary to accomplish the movement. (Excludes transportation operated or
controlled by the military as well as petroleum and gas pipelines.)

clandestine operation — An operation sponsored or conducted by governmental
departments or agencies in such a way as to assure secrecy or concealment. A
clandestine operation differs from a covert operation in that emphasis is placed on
concealment of the operation rather than on concealment of the identity of the sponsor.
In special operations, an activity may be both covert and clandestine and may focus
equally on operational considerations and intelligence-related activities. See also
covert operation; overt operation. (JP 3-05.1)

classes of supply — There are ten categories into which supplies are grouped in order to
facilitate supply management and planning. I. Rations and gratuitous issue of health,
morale, and welfare items. II. Clothing, individual equipment, tentage, tool sets, and
administrative and housekeeping supplies and equipment. III. Petroleum, oils, and
lubricants. IV. Construction materials. V. Ammunition. VI. Personal demand items.
VII. Major end items, including tanks, helicopters, and radios. VIII. Medical. IX.
Repair parts and components for equipment maintenance. X. Nonstandard items to
support nonmilitary programs such as agriculture and economic development. See also
ammunition; petroleum, oils, and lubricants. (JP 4-09)

classification — The determination that official information requires, in the interests of
national security, a specific degree of protection against unauthorized disclosure,
coupled with a designation signifying that such a determination has been made. See
also security classification.

classification of bridges and vehicles — See military load classification.

classified information — Official information that has been determined to require, in the
interests of national security, protection against unauthorized disclosure and which has
been so designated.

classified matter — (*) Official information or matter in any form or of any nature which
requires protection in the interests of national security. See also unclassified matter.

clean aircraft — 1. An aircraft in flight configuration (versus landing configuration); i.e.,
landing gear and flaps retracted, etc. 2. An aircraft that does not have external stores.

cleansing station — See decontamination station.

clear — 1. To approve or authorize, or to obtain approval or authorization for: a. a person
or persons with regard to their actions, movements, duties, etc.; b. an object or group of
objects, as equipment or supplies, with regard to quality, quantity, purpose, movement,
disposition, etc.; and c. a request, with regard to correctness of form, validity, etc. 2.
To give one or more aircraft a clearance. 3. To give a person a security clearance. 4.
To fly over an obstacle without touching it. 5. To pass a designated point, line, or
object. The end of a column must pass the designated feature before the latter is
cleared. 6. a. To operate a gun so as to unload it or make certain no ammunition
remains; and b. to free a gun of stoppages. 7. To clear an engine; to open the throttle
of an idling engine to free it from carbon. 8. To clear the air to gain either temporary
or permanent air superiority or control in a given sector.

clearance capacity — An estimate expressed in terms of measurement or weight tons per
day of the cargo that may be transported inland from a beach or port over the available
means of inland communication, including roads, railroads, and inland waterways. The
estimate is based on an evaluation of the physical characteristics of the transportation
facilities in the area. See also beach capacity; port capacity.

clearance decontamination — The final level of decontamination that provides the
decontamination of equipment and personnel to a level that allows unrestricted
transportation, maintenance, employment, and disposal. (JP 3-11)

clearance rate — (*) The area which would be cleared per unit time with a stated
minimum percentage clearance, using specific minehunting and/or minesweeping

clearing operation — An operation designed to clear or neutralize all mines and obstacles
from a route or area. (JP 3-15)

clock code position — The position of a target in relation to an aircraft or ship with
dead-ahead position considered as 12 o’clock.

close air support — Air action by fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft against hostile targets that
are in close proximity to friendly forces and that require detailed integration of each air
mission with the fire and movement of those forces. Also called CAS. See also air
interdiction; air support; immediate mission request; preplanned mission request.
(JP 3-0)

close-controlled air interception — (*) An interception in which the interceptor is
continuously controlled to a position from which the target is within visual range or
radar contact. See also air interception. (JP 3-01.1)

closed area — (*) A designated area in or over which passage of any kind is prohibited.
See also prohibited area.

close support — (*) That action of the supporting force against targets or objectives which
are sufficiently near the supported force as to require detailed integration or
coordination of the supporting action with the fire, movement, or other actions of the
supported force. See also direct support; general support; mutual support;
support. (JP 3-31)

close support area — Those parts of the ocean operating areas nearest to, but not
necessarily in, the objective area. They are assigned to naval support carrier battle
groups, surface action groups, surface action units, and certain logistic combat service
support elements. (JP 3-02)

closure — In transportation, the process of a unit arriving at a specified location. It begins
when the first element arrives at a designated location, e.g., port of entry and/or port of
departure, intermediate stops, or final destination, and ends when the last element does
likewise. For the purposes of studies and command post exercises, a unit is considered
essentially closed after 95 percent of its movement requirements for personnel and
equipment are completed.

closure minefield — (*) In naval mine warfare, a minefield which is planned to present
such a threat that waterborne shipping is prevented from moving.

closure shortfall — The specified movement requirement or portion thereof that did not
meet scheduling criteria and/or movement dates.

cloud amount — (*) The proportion of sky obscured by cloud, expressed as a fraction of
sky covered.

cloud chamber effect — See condensation cloud.

cloud top height — The maximal altitude to which a nuclear mushroom cloud rises.

cluster bomb unit — (*) An aircraft store composed of a dispenser and submunitions.
Also called CBU.

clutter — Permanent echoes, cloud, or other atmospheric echo on radar scope; as contact
has entered scope clutter. See also radar clutter.

coalition — An ad hoc arrangement between two or more nations for common action. See
also alliance; multinational. (JP 5-0)

coalition action — Multinational action outside the bounds of established alliances, usually
for single occasions or longer cooperation in a narrow sector of common interest. See
also alliance; coalition; multinational operations. (JP 5-0)

coarse mine — (*) In naval mine warfare, a relatively insensitive influence mine.

coassembly — With respect to exports, a cooperative arrangement (e.g., US Government or
company with foreign government or company) by which finished parts, components,
assemblies, or subassemblies are provided to an eligible foreign government,
international organization, or commercial producer for the assembly of an end-item or
system. This is normally accomplished under the provisions of a manufacturing license
agreement per the US International Traffic in Arms Regulation and could involve the
implementation of a government-to- government memorandum of understanding.

coastal convoy — (*) A convoy whose voyage lies in general on the continental shelf and
in coastal waters.

coastal frontier — A geographic division of a coastal area, established for organization and
command purposes in order to ensure the effective coordination of military forces
employed in military operations within the coastal frontier area.

coastal refraction — (*) The change of the direction of travel of a radio ground wave as it
passes from land to sea or from sea to land. Also called land effect or shoreline effect.

coastal sea control — The employment of forces to ensure the unimpeded use of an
offshore coastal area by friendly forces and, as appropriate, to deny the use of the area
to enemy forces. (JP 3-10)

code — 1. Any system of communication in which arbitrary groups of symbols represent
units of plain text of varying length. Codes may be used for brevity or for security. 2.
A cryptosystem in which the cryptographic equivalents (usually called “code groups”),
typically consisting of letters or digits (or both) in otherwise meaningless combinations,
are substituted for plain text elements which are primarily words, phrases, or sentences.
See also cryptosystem.

code word — (*) 1. A word that has been assigned a classification and a classified
meaning to safeguard intentions and information regarding a classified plan or
operation. 2. A cryptonym used to identify sensitive intelligence data.

cold war — A state of international tension wherein political, economic, technological,
sociological, psychological, paramilitary, and military measures short of overt armed
conflict involving regular military forces are employed to achieve national objectives.

collaborative purchase — A method of purchase whereby, in buying similar commodities,
buyers for two or more departments exchange information concerning planned
purchases in order to minimize competition between them for commodities in the same

collapse depth — (*) The design depth, referenced to the axis of the pressure hull, beyond
which the hull structure or hull penetrations are presumed to suffer catastrophic failure
to the point of total collapse.

collate — 1. The grouping together of related items to provide a record of events and
facilitate further processing. 2. To compare critically two or more items or documents
concerning the same general subject; normally accomplished in the processing and
exploitation portion of the intelligence process. See also intelligence process. (JP 2-0)

collateral damage — Unintentional or incidental injury or damage to persons or objects
that would not be lawful military targets in the circumstances ruling at the time. Such
damage is not unlawful so long as it is not excessive in light of the overall military
advantage anticipated from the attack. (JP 3-60)

collection — In intelligence usage, the acquisition of information and the provision of this
information to processing elements. See also intelligence process. (JP 2-01)

collection (acquisition) — The obtaining of information in any manner, including direct
observation, liaison with official agencies, or solicitation from official, unofficial, or
public sources.

collection agency — Any individual, organization, or unit that has access to sources of
information and the capability of collecting information from them. See also agency.

collection asset — A collection system, platform, or capability that is supporting, assigned,
or attached to a particular commander. See also capability; collection. (JP 2-01)

collection coordination facility line number — An arbitrary number assigned to
contingency intelligence reconnaissance objectives by the Defense Intelligence Agency
collection coordination facility to facilitate all-source collection.

collection management — In intelligence usage, the process of converting intelligence
requirements into collection requirements, establishing priorities, tasking or
coordinating with appropriate collection sources or agencies, monitoring results, and
retasking, as required. See also collection; collection requirement; collection
requirements management; intelligence; intelligence process. (JP 2-0)

collection management authority — Within the Department of Defense, collection
management authority constitutes the authority to establish, prioritize, and validate
theater collection requirements, establish sensor tasking guidance, and develop theaterwide
collection policies. Also called CMA. See also collection manager; collection
plan; collection requirement. (JP 2-01.2)

collection manager — An individual with responsibility for the timely and efficient tasking
of organic collection resources and the development of requirements for theater and
national assets that could satisfy specific information needs in support of the mission.
Also called CM. See also collection; collection management authority. (JP 2-01)

collection operations management — The authoritative direction, scheduling, and control
of specific collection operations and associated processing, exploitation, and reporting
resources. Also called COM. See also collection management; collection
requirements management. (JP 2-0)

collection plan — (*) A plan for collecting information from all available sources to meet
intelligence requirements and for transforming those requirements into orders and
requests to appropriate agencies. See also information; information requirements;
intelligence process. (JP 2-01)

collection planning — A continuous process that coordinates and integrates the efforts of
all collection units and agencies. See also collection. (JP 2-0)

collection point — A point designated for the assembly of personnel casualties, stragglers,
disabled materiel, salvage, etc., for further movement to collecting stations or rear

collection requirement — 1. An intelligence need considered in the allocation of
intelligence resources. Within the Department of Defense, these collection
requirements fulfill the essential elements of information and other intelligence needs
of a commander, or an agency. 2. An established intelligence need, validated against
the appropriate allocation of intelligence resources (as a requirement) to fulfill the
essential elements of information and other intelligence needs of an intelligence
consumer. (JP 2-01.2)

collection requirements management — The authoritative development and control of
collection, processing, exploitation, and/or reporting requirements that normally result
in either the direct tasking of assets over which the collection manager has authority, or
the generation of tasking requests to collection management authorities at a higher,
lower, or lateral echelon to accomplish the collection mission. Also called CRM. See
also collection; collection management; collection operations management.
(JP 2-0)

collection resource — A collection system, platform, or capability that is not assigned or
attached to a specific unit or echelon which must be requested and coordinated through
the chain of command. See also collection management. (JP 2-01)

collective call sign — (*) Any call sign which represents two or more facilities, commands,
authorities, or units. The collective call sign for any of these includes the commander
thereof and all subordinate commanders therein. See also call sign.

collective protection — The protection provided to a group of individuals which permits
relaxation of individual chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear protection. Also
called COLPRO. (JP 3-11)

collective self-defense — Collective self-defense is the act of defending other designated
non-US forces. Only the President or Secretary of Defense may authorize US forces to
exercise the right of collective self-defense.

collocation — (*) The physical placement of two or more detachments, units,
organizations, or facilities at a specifically defined location.

colored beach — That portion of usable coastline sufficient for the assault landing of a
regimental landing team or similar sized unit. In the event that the landing force
consists of a single battalion landing team, a colored beach will be used and no further
subdivision of the beach is required. See also numbered beach. (JP 3-02)

column formation — (*) A formation in which elements are placed one behind the other.

column gap — (*) The space between two consecutive elements proceeding on the same
route. It can be calculated in units of length or in units of time measured from the rear
of one element to the front of the following element.

column length — (*) The length of the roadway occupied by a column or a convoy in
movement. See also road space.

combat air patrol — (*) An aircraft patrol provided over an objective area, the force
protected, the critical area of a combat zone, or in an air defense area, for the purpose of
intercepting and destroying hostile aircraft before they reach their targets. Also called
CAP. See also airborne alert; barrier combat air patrol; patrol; rescue combat air
patrol. (JP 3-01)

combat airspace control — See airspace control in the combat zone. (JP 3-52)

combat and operational stress — The expected and predictable emotional, intellectual,
physical, and/or behavioral reactions of Service members who have been exposed to
stressful events in war or military operations other than war. Combat stress reactions
vary in quality and severity as a function of operational conditions, such as intensity,
duration, rules of engagement, leadership, effective communication, unit morale, unit
cohesion, and perceived importance of the mission. (JP 4-02)

combat and operational stress control — Programs developed and actions taken by
military leadership to prevent, identify, and manage adverse combat and operational
stress reactions in units; optimize mission performance; conserve fighting strength;
prevent or minimize adverse effects of combat and operational stress on members’
physical, psychological, intellectual and social health; and to return the unit or Service
member to duty expeditiously. (JP 4-02)

combatant command — A unified or specified command with a broad continuing mission
under a single commander established and so designated by the President, through the
Secretary of Defense and with the advice and assistance of the Chairman of the Joint
Chiefs of Staff. Combatant commands typically have geographic or functional
responsibilities. See also specified command; unified command. (JP 5-0)

combatant command chaplain — The senior chaplain assigned to the staff of, or
designated by, the combatant commander to provide advice on religion, ethics, and
morale of assigned personnel and to coordinate religious ministries within the
combatant commander’s area of responsibility. See also command chaplain; lay
leader; religious support; religious support plan; religious support team. (JP 1-05)

combatant command (command authority) — Nontransferable command authority
established by title 10 (“Armed Forces”), United States Code, section 164, exercised
only by commanders of unified or specified combatant commands unless otherwise
directed by the President or the Secretary of Defense. Combatant command (command
authority) cannot be delegated and is the authority of a combatant commander to
perform those functions of command over assigned forces involving organizing and
employing commands and forces, assigning tasks, designating objectives, and giving
authoritative direction over all aspects of military operations, joint training, and
logistics necessary to accomplish the missions assigned to the command. Combatant
command (command authority) should be exercised through the commanders of
subordinate organizations. Normally this authority is exercised through subordinate
joint force commanders and Service and/or functional component commanders.
Combatant command (command authority) provides full authority to organize and
employ commands and forces as the combatant commander considers necessary to
accomplish assigned missions. Operational control is inherent in combatant command
(command authority). Also called COCOM. See also combatant command;
combatant commander; operational control; tactical control. (JP 1)

combatant commander — A commander of one of the unified or specified combatant
commands established by the President. Also called CCDR. See also combatant
command; specified combatant command; unified combatant command. (JP 3-0)

combatant commander logistic procurement support board — A combatant
commander-level joint board established to ensure that contracting support and other
sources of support are properly synchronized across the entire area of responsibility.
Also called CLPSB. See also joint acquisition review board; joint contracting
support board. (JP 4-10)

combatant commander’s required date — The original date relative to C-day, specified
by the combatant commander for arrival of forces or cargo at the destination; shown in
the time-phased force and deployment data to assess the impact of later arrival. Also
called CRD.

combat area — A restricted area (air, land, or sea) that is established to prevent or
minimize mutual interference between friendly forces engaged in combat operations.
See also combat zone.

combat assessment — The determination of the overall effectiveness of force employment
during military operations. Combat assessment is composed of three major
components: (a) battle damage assessment; (b) munitions effectiveness assessment;
and (c) reattack recommendation. Also called CA. See also battle damage
assessment; munitions effectiveness assessment; reattack recommendation.
(JP 3-60)

combat camera — The acquisition and utilization of still and motion imagery in support of
combat, information, humanitarian, special force, intelligence, reconnaissance,
engineering, legal, public affairs, and other operations involving the Military Services.
Also called COMCAM. See also visual information; visual information
documentation. (JP 3-61)

combat cargo officer — An embarkation officer assigned to major amphibious ships or
naval staffs, functioning primarily as an adviser to and representative of the naval
commander in matters pertaining to embarkation and debarkation of troops and their
supplies and equipment. Also called CCO. See also embarkation officer.

combat chart — A special naval chart, at a scale of 1:50,000, designed for naval surface
fire support and close air support during coastal or amphibious operations and showing
detailed hydrography and topography in the coastal belt. See also amphibious chart.

combat control team — A small task organized team of Air Force parachute and combat
diver qualified personnel trained and equipped to rapidly establish and control drop,
landing, and extraction zone air traffic in austere or hostile conditions. They survey
and establish terminal airheads as well as provide guidance to aircraft for airlift
operations. They provide command and control, and conduct reconnaissance,
surveillance, and survey assessments of potential objective airfields or assault zones.
They also can perform limited weather observations and removal of obstacles or
unexploded ordinance with demolitions. Also called CCT. (JP 3-17)

combat engineering — Those engineering capabilities and activities that support the
maneuver of land combat forces and that require close support to those forces. Combat
engineering consists of three types of capabilities and activities: mobility,
countermobility, and survivability. (JP 3-34)

combat forces — Those forces whose primary missions are to participate in combat. See
also operating forces.

combat identification — The process of attaining an accurate characterization of detected
objects in the operational environment sufficient to support an engagement decision.
Also called CID. (JP 3-09)

combat information — Unevaluated data, gathered by or provided directly to the tactical
commander which, due to its highly perishable nature or the criticality of the situation,
cannot be processed into tactical intelligence in time to satisfy the user’s tactical
intelligence requirements. See also information.

combat information center — The agency in a ship or aircraft manned and equipped to
collect, display, evaluate, and disseminate tactical information for the use of the
embarked flag officer, commanding officer, and certain control agencies. Also called
CIC. (JP 3-04)

combating terrorism — Actions, including antiterrorism (defensive measures taken to
reduce vulnerability to terrorist acts) and counterterrorism (offensive measures taken to
prevent, deter, and respond to terrorism), taken to oppose terrorism throughout the
entire threat spectrum. Also called CbT. See also antiterrorism; counterterrorism.
(JP 3-07.2)

combat intelligence — That knowledge of the enemy, weather, and geographical features
required by a commander in the planning and conduct of combat operations. (JP 2-0)

combat loading — (*) The arrangement of personnel and the stowage of equipment and
supplies in a manner designed to conform to the anticipated tactical operation of the
organization embarked. Each individual item is stowed so that it can be unloaded at the
required time. See also loading. (JP 3-02)

combat power — (*) The total means of destructive and/or disruptive force which a
military unit/formation can apply against the opponent at a given time. (JP 4-0)

combat readiness — Synonymous with operational readiness, with respect to missions or
functions performed in combat.

combat search and rescue — The tactics, techniques, and procedures performed by forces
to effect the recovery of isolated personnel during combat. Also called CSAR. See
also search and rescue. (JP 3-50)

combat search and rescue task force — All forces committed to a specific combat search
and rescue operation to locate, identify, support, and recover isolated personnel during
combat. This includes those elements assigned to provide command and control and to
protect the recovery vehicle(s) from attack. Also called CSARTF. See also combat
search and rescue; search; search and rescue. (JP 3-50)

combat service support — The essential capabilities, functions, activities, and tasks
necessary to sustain all elements of operating forces in theater at all levels of war.
Within the national and theater logistic systems, it includes but is not limited to that
support rendered by service forces in ensuring the aspects of supply, maintenance,
transportation, health services, and other services required by aviation and ground
combat troops to permit those units to accomplish their missions in combat. Combat
service support encompasses those activities at all levels of war that produce
sustainment to all operating forces on the battlefield. Also called CSS. See also
combat support. (JP 4-0)

combat service support area — An area ashore that is organized to contain the necessary
supplies, equipment, installations, and elements to provide the landing force with
combat service support throughout the operation. Also called CSSA. (JP 3-02)

combat service support element — The core element of a Marine air-ground task force
(MAGTF) that is task-organized to provide the combat service support necessary to
accomplish the MAGTF mission. The combat service support element varies in size
from a small detachment to one or more force service support groups. It provides
supply, maintenance, transportation, general engineering, health services, and a variety
of other services to the MAGTF. The combat service support element itself is not a
formal command. Also called CSSE. See also aviation combat element; command
element; ground combat element; Marine air-ground task force; Marine
expeditionary force; Marine expeditionary force (forward); Marine expeditionary
unit; special purpose Marine air-ground task force; task force.

combat service support elements — Those elements whose primary missions are to
provide service support to combat forces and which are a part, or prepared to become a
part, of a theater, command, or task force formed for combat operations. See also
operating forces; service troops; troops.

combat support — Fire support and operational assistance provided to combat elements.
Also called CS. See also combat service support. (JP 4-0)

combat support agency — A Department of Defense agency so designated by Congress or
the Secretary of Defense that supports military combat operations. Also called CSA.
(JP 5-0)

combat support elements — Those elements whose primary missions are to provide
combat support to the combat forces and which are a part, or prepared to become a part,
of a theater, command, or task force formed for combat operations. See also operating

combat support troops — Those units or organizations whose primary mission is to
furnish operational assistance for the combat elements. See also troops.

combat surveillance — A continuous, all-weather, day-and-night, systematic watch over
the battle area in order to provide timely information for tactical combat operations.

combat surveillance radar — Radar with the normal function of maintaining continuous
watch over a combat area.

combat survival — (*) Those measures to be taken by Service personnel when
involuntarily separated from friendly forces in combat, including procedures relating to
individual survival, evasion, escape, and conduct after capture.

combat vehicle — A vehicle, with or without armor, designed for a specific fighting
function. Armor protection or armament mounted as supplemental equipment on
noncombat vehicles will not change the classification of such vehicles to combat

combat visual information support center — A visual information support facility
established at a base of operations during war or military operations other than war to
provide limited visual information support to the base and its supported elements. Also
called CVISC.

combat zone — 1. That area required by combat forces for the conduct of operations. 2.
The territory forward of the Army rear area boundary. See also combat area;
communications zone.

combination influence mine — (*) A mine designed to actuate only when two or more
different influences are received either simultaneously or in a predetermined order.
Also called combined influence mine. See also mine.

combination mission/level of effort-oriented items — Items for which requirement
computations are based on the criteria used for both level of effort-oriented and
mission-oriented items.

combined — Between two or more forces or agencies of two or more allies. (When all
allies or services are not involved, the participating nations and services shall be
identified, e.g., combined navies.) See also joint.

combined airspeed indicator — (*) An instrument which displays both indicated airspeed
and mach number.

combined arms team — The full integration and application of two or more arms or
elements of one Military Service into an operation. (JP 3-18)

combined force — A military force composed of elements of two or more allied nations.
See also force(s).

combined influence mine — See combination influence mine.

combined joint special operations task force — A task force composed of special
operations units from one or more foreign countries and more than one US Military
Department formed to carry out a specific special operation or prosecute special
operations in support of a theater campaign or other operations. The combined joint
special operations task force may have conventional nonspecial operations units
assigned or attached to support the conduct of specific missions. Also called CJSOTF.
See also joint special operations task force; special operations; task force. (JP 3-05)

combined operation — (*) An operation conducted by forces of two or more Allied
nations acting together for the accomplishment of a single mission. (JP 3-52)

combustor — (*) A name generally assigned to the combination of flame holder or
stabilizer, igniter, combustion chamber, and injection system of a ramjet or gas turbine.

command — 1. The authority that a commander in the armed forces lawfully exercises
over subordinates by virtue of rank or assignment. Command includes the authority
and responsibility for effectively using available resources and for planning the
employment of, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling military forces for
the accomplishment of assigned missions. It also includes responsibility for health,
welfare, morale, and discipline of assigned personnel. 2. An order given by a
commander; that is, the will of the commander expressed for the purpose of bringing
about a particular action. 3. A unit or units, an organization, or an area under the
command of one individual. Also called CMD. See also area command; combatant
command; combatant command (command authority). (JP 1)

command and control — The exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated
commander over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of the mission.
Command and control functions are performed through an arrangement of personnel,
equipment, communications, facilities, and procedures employed by a commander in
planning, directing, coordinating, and controlling forces and operations in the
accomplishment of the mission. Also called C2. (JP 1)

command and control system — The facilities, equipment, communications, procedures,
and personnel essential to a commander for planning, directing, and controlling
operations of assigned and attached forces pursuant to the missions assigned. (JP 6-0)

command assessment element — The small team of personnel sent by the United States
Northern Command or United States Pacific Command to a chemical, biological,
radiological, nuclear, or high-yield explosives incident site to conduct a consequence
management assessment and make an evaluation of potential shortfalls in federal and
state capabilities, which may become requests for Department of Defense assistance.
Also called CAE. (JP 3-41)

command axis — (*) A line along which a headquarters will move.

command center — A facility from which a commander and his or her representatives
direct operations and control forces. It is organized to gather, process, analyze, display,
and disseminate planning and operational data and perform other related tasks. Also
called CC.

command channel — See chain of command.

command chaplain — The senior chaplain assigned to or designated by a commander of a
staff, command, or unit. See also combatant command chaplain; lay leader;
religious support; religious support plan. (JP 1-05)

command controlled stocks — (*) Stocks which are placed at the disposal of a designated
NATO commander in order to provide him with a flexibility with which to influence
the battle logistically. “Placed at the disposal of” implies responsibility for storage,
maintenance, accounting, rotation or turnover, physical security, and subsequent
transportation to a particular battle area.

command destruct signal — (*) A signal used to operate intentionally the destruction
signal in a missile.

command detonated mine — (*) A mine detonated by remotely controlled means.

command ejection system — See ejection systems.

command element — The core element of a Marine air-ground task force (MAGTF) that is
the headquarters. The command element is composed of the commander, general or
executive and special staff sections, headquarters section, and requisite
communications support, intelligence, and reconnaissance forces necessary to
accomplish the MAGTF mission. The command element provides command and
control, intelligence, and other support essential for effective planning and execution of
operations by the other elements of the MAGTF. The command element varies in size
and composition. Also called CE. See also aviation combat element; combat
service support element; ground combat element; Marine air-ground task force;
Marine expeditionary force; Marine expeditionary force (forward); Marine
expeditionary unit; special purpose Marine air-ground task force; task force.

commander, amphibious task force — The Navy officer designated in the order initiating
the amphibious operation as the commander of the amphibious task force. Also called
CATF. See also amphibious operation; amphibious task force; commander,
landing force. (JP 3-02)

commander, landing force — The officer designated in the order initiating the amphibious
operation as the commander of the landing force for an amphibious operation. Also
called CLF. See also amphibious operation; commander, amphibious task force;
landing force. (JP 3-02)

commander’s concept — See concept of operations.

commander’s critical information requirement — An information requirement identified
by the commander as being critical to facilitating timely decision-making. The two key
elements are friendly force information requirements and priority intelligence
requirements. Also called CCIR. See also information; information requirements;
intelligence; priority intelligence requirement. (JP 3-0)

commander’s estimate — In the context of the Joint Operation Planning and Execution
System level 1 planning detail for contingency planning, a developed course of action.
The product for this level can be a course of action briefing, command directive,
commander’s estimate, or a memorandum. The commander’s estimate provides the
Secretary of Defense with military courses of action to meet a potential contingency.
See also commander’s estimate of the situation. (JP 5-0)

commander’s estimate of the situation — A process of reasoning by which a commander
considers all the circumstances affecting the military situation and arrives at a decision
as to a course of action to be taken to accomplish the mission. A commander’s
estimate, which considers a military situation so far in the future as to require major
assumptions, is called a commander’s long-range estimate of the situation (JP 3-0)

commander’s intent — A concise expression of the purpose of the operation and the
desired end state. It may also include the commander’s assessment of the adversary
commander’s intent and an assessment of where and how much risk is acceptable
during the operation. See also assessment; end state. (JP 3-0)

command guidance — (*) A guidance system wherein intelligence transmitted to the
missile from an outside source causes the missile to traverse a directed flight path.

command information — Communication by a military organization with Service
members, civilian employees, retirees, and family members of the organization that
creates an awareness of the organization’s goals, informs them of significant
developments affecting them and the organization, increases their effectiveness as
ambassadors of the organization, and keeps them informed about what is going on in
the organization. Also called internal information. See also command;
information; public affairs. (JP 3-61)

commanding officer of troops — On a ship that has embarked units, a designated officer
(usually the senior embarking unit commander) who is responsible for the
administration, discipline, and training of all embarked units. Also called COT.
(JP 3-02.2)

command net — (*) A communications network which connects an echelon of command
with some or all of its subordinate echelons for the purpose of command and control.

command post — (*) A unit’s or subunit’s headquarters where the commander and the
staff perform their activities. In combat, a unit’s or subunit’s headquarters is often
divided into echelons; the echelon in which the unit or subunit commander is located or
from which such commander operates is called a command post. Also called CP.

command post exercise — An exercise in which the forces are simulated, involving the
commander, the staff, and communications within and between headquarters. Also
called CPX. See also exercise; maneuver.

command relationships — The interrelated responsibilities between commanders, as well
as the operational authority exercised by commanders in the chain of command;
defined further as combatant command (command authority), operational control,
tactical control, or support. See also chain of command; combatant command
(command authority); command; operational control; support; tactical control.
(JP 1)

command select ejection system — See ejection systems.

command-sponsored dependent — A dependent entitled to travel to overseas commands
at Government expense and endorsed by the appropriate military commander to be
present in a dependent’s status.

commercial items — Articles of supply readily available from established commercial
distribution sources which the Department of Defense or inventory managers in the
Military Services have designated to be obtained directly or indirectly from such

commercial loading — See administrative loading.

commercial vehicle — A vehicle that has evolved in the commercial market to meet
civilian requirements and which is selected from existing production lines for military

commission — 1. To put in or make ready for service or use, as to commission an aircraft
or a ship. 2. A written order giving a person rank and authority as an officer in the
armed forces. 3. The rank and the authority given by such an order. See also

commit — The process of committing one or more air interceptors or surface-to-air missiles
for interception against a target track.

commodity loading — (*) A method of loading in which various types of cargoes are
loaded together, such as ammunition, rations, or boxed vehicles, in order that each
commodity can be discharged without disturbing the others. See also combat loading;

commodity manager — An individual within the organization of an inventory control
point or other such organization assigned management responsibility for homogeneous
grouping of materiel items.

commonality — A quality that applies to materiel or systems: a. possessing like and
interchangeable characteristics enabling each to be utilized, or operated and maintained,
by personnel trained on the others without additional specialized training; b. having
interchangeable repair parts and/or components; and c. applying to consumable items
interchangeably equivalent without adjustment.

common control (artillery) — Horizontal and vertical map or chart location of points in
the target area and position area, tied in with the horizontal and vertical control in use
by two or more units. May be established by firing, survey, or combination of both, or
by assumption. See also control point; ground control.

common infrastructure — (*) Infrastructure essential to the training of NATO forces or to
the implementation of NATO operational plans which, owing to its degree of common
use or interest and its compliance with criteria laid down from time to time by the
North Atlantic Council, is commonly financed by NATO members. See also

common item — 1. Any item of materiel that is required for use by more than one activity.
2. Sometimes loosely used to denote any consumable item except repair parts or other
technical items. 3. Any item of materiel that is procured for, owned by (Service stock),
or used by any Military Department of the Department of Defense and is also required
to be furnished to a recipient country under the grant-aid Military Assistance Program.
4. Readily available commercial items. 5. Items used by two or more Military
Services of similar manufacture or fabrication that may vary between the Services as to
color or shape (as vehicles or clothing). 6. Any part or component that is required in
the assembly of two or more complete end-items.

common operating environment — Automation services that support the development of
the common reusable software modules that enable interoperability across multiple
combat support applications. This includes segmentation of common software modules
from existing applications, integration of commercial products, development of a
common architecture, and development of common tools for application developers.
Also called COE. (JP 4-01)

common operational picture — A single identical display of relevant information shared
by more than one command. A common operational picture facilitates collaborative
planning and assists all echelons to achieve situational awareness. Also called COP.
(JP 3-0)

common servicing — That function performed by one Military Service in support of
another Military Service for which reimbursement is not required from the Service
receiving support. See also servicing.

common supplies — Those supplies common to two or more Services.

common tactical picture — An accurate and complete display of relevant tactical data that
integrates tactical information from the multi-tactical data link network, ground
network, intelligence network, and sensor networks. Also called CTP. (JP 3-01)

common use — Services, materiel, or facilities provided by a Department of Defense
agency or a Military Department on a common basis for two or more Department of
Defense agencies, elements, or other organizations as directed.

common use alternatives — Systems, subsystems, devices, components, and materials,
already developed or under development, that could be used to reduce the cost of new
systems acquisition and support by reducing duplication of research and development
effort and by limiting the addition of support base.

common-use container — Any Department of Defense-owned, -leased, or -controlled 20-
or 40-foot International Organization for Standardization container managed by US
Transportation Command as an element of the Department of Defense common-use
container system. See also component- owned container; Service-unique container.
(JP 4-01.7)

common-user airlift service — The airlift service provided on a common basis for all
Department of Defense agencies and, as authorized, for other agencies of the US

common-user item — An item of an interchangeable nature which is in common use by
two or more nations or Services of a nation. (JP 4-07)

common-user logistics — Materiel or service support shared with or provided by two or
more Services, Department of Defense (DOD) agencies, or multinational partners to
another Service, DOD agency, non-DOD agency, and/or multinational partner in an
operation. Common-user logistics is usually restricted to a particular type of supply
and/or service and may be further restricted to specific unit(s) or types of units, specific
times, missions, and/or geographic areas. Also called CUL. See also common use.
(JP 4-07)

common-user military land transportation — Point-to-point land transportation service
operated by a single Service for common use by two or more Services.

common-user network — A system of circuits or channels allocated to furnish
communication paths between switching centers to provide communication service on
a common basis to all connected stations or subscribers. It is sometimes described as a
general purpose network.

common-user ocean terminals — A military installation, part of a military installation, or a
commercial facility operated under contract or arrangement by the Surface Deployment
and Distribution Command which regularly provides for two or more Services terminal
functions of receipt, transit storage or staging, processing, and loading and unloading of
passengers or cargo aboard ships. (JP 4-01.2)

common-user sealift — The sealift services provided on a common basis for all
Department of Defense agencies and, as authorized, for other agencies of the US
Government. The Military Sealift Command, a transportation component command of
the US Transportation Command, provides common-user sealift for which users
reimburse the transportation accounts of the Transportation Working Capital Fund. See
also Military Sealift Command; transportation component command. (JP 3-35)

common-user transportation — Transportation and transportation services provided on a
common basis for two or more Department of Defense agencies and, as authorized,
non-Department of Defense agencies. Common-user assets are under the combatant
command (command authority) of Commander, United States Transportation
Command, excluding Service-organic or theater-assigned transportation assets. See
also common use. (JP 4-01.2)

communicate — To use any means or method to convey information of any kind from one
person or place to another. (JP 6-0)

communication deception — Use of devices, operations, and techniques with the intent of
confusing or misleading the user of a communications link or a navigation system.

communication operation instructions — See signal operation instructions.

communications intelligence — Technical information and intelligence derived from
foreign communications by other than the intended recipients. Also called COMINT.
(JP 2-0)

communications intelligence database — The aggregate of technical information and
intelligence derived from the interception and analysis of foreign communications
(excluding press, propaganda, and public broadcast) used in the direction and
redirection of communications intelligence intercept, analysis, and reporting activities.

communications mark — An electronic indicator used for directing attention to a
particular object or position of mutual interest within or between command and control

communications net — (*) An organization of stations capable of direct communications
on a common channel or frequency.

communications network — An organization of stations capable of intercommunications,
but not necessarily on the same channel.

communications satellite — (*) An orbiting vehicle, which relays signals between
communications stations. There are two types: a. active communications satellite —
A satellite that receives, regenerates, and retransmits signals between stations; b.
passive communications satellite — A satellite which reflects communications
signals between stations. Also called COMSAT.

communications security — The protection resulting from all measures designed to deny
unauthorized persons information of value that might be derived from the possession
and study of telecommunications, or to mislead unauthorized persons in their
interpretation of the results of such possession and study. Also called COMSEC.
(JP 6-0)

communications security equipment — Equipment designed to provide security to
telecommunications by converting information to a form unintelligible to an
unauthorized interceptor and by reconverting such information to its original form for
authorized recipients, as well as equipment designed specifically to aid in (or as an
essential element of) the conversion process. Communications security equipment is
cryptoequipment, cryptoancillary equipment, cryptoproduction equipment, and
authentication equipment.

communications security material — All documents, devices, equipment, or apparatus,
including cryptomaterial, used in establishing or maintaining secure communications.

communications security monitoring — The act of listening to, copying, or recording
transmissions of one’s own circuits (or when specially agreed, e.g., in allied exercises,
those of friendly forces) to provide material for communications security analysis in
order to determine the degree of security being provided to those transmissions. In
particular, the purposes include providing a basis for advising commanders on the
security risks resulting from their transmissions, improving the security of
communications, and planning and conducting manipulative communications
deception operations.

communications system — Communications networks and information services that
enable joint and multinational warfighting capabilities. See also command and
control. (JP 6-0)

communications terminal — Terminus of a communications circuit at which data can be
either entered or received; located with the originator or ultimate addressee. Also
called CT.

communications zone — Rear part of a theater of war or theater of operations (behind but
contiguous to the combat zone) which contains the lines of communications,
establishments for supply and evacuation, and other agencies required for the
immediate support and maintenance of the field forces. Also called COMMZ. See
also combat zone; line of communications; rear area; theater of operations;
theater of war. (JP 4-0)

community relations — 1. The relationship between military and civilian communities. 2.
Those public affairs programs that address issues of interest to the general public,
business, academia, veterans, Service organizations, military-related associations, and
other non-news media entities. These programs are usually associated with the
interaction between US military installations and their surrounding or nearby civilian
communities. Interaction with overseas non-news media civilians in an operational
area is handled by civil-military operations with public affairs support as required. See
also public affairs. (JP 3-61)

community relations program — That command function that evaluates public attitudes,
identifies the mission of a military organization with the public interest, and executes a
program of action to earn public understanding and acceptance.

comparative cover — (*) Coverage of the same area or object taken at different times, to
show any changes in details. See also cover.

compartmentation — 1. Establishment and management of an organization so that
information about the personnel, internal organization, or activities of one component is
made available to any other component only to the extent required for the performance
of assigned duties. 2. Effects of relief and drainage upon avenues of approach so as to
produce areas bounded on at least two sides by terrain features such as woods, ridges,
or ravines that limit observation or observed fire into the area from points outside the
area. (JP 3-05.1)

compass rose — (*) A graduated circle, usually marked in degrees, indicating directions
and printed or inscribed on an appropriate medium.

complaint-type investigation — A counterintelligence investigation in which sabotage,
espionage, treason, sedition, subversive activity, or disaffection is suspected.

completeness — The joint operation plan review criterion for assessing whether operation
plans incorporate major operations and tasks to be accomplished and to what degree
they include forces required, deployment concept, employment concept, sustainment
concept, time estimates for achieving objectives, description of the end state, mission
success criteria, and mission termination criteria. (JP 5-0)

complete round — A term applied to an assemblage of explosive and nonexplosive
components designed to perform a specific function at the time and under the
conditions desired. Examples of complete rounds of ammunition are: a. separate
loading, consisting of a primer, propelling charge and, except for blank ammunition, a
projectile and a fuze; b. fixed or semifixed, consisting of a primer, propelling charge,
cartridge case, a projectile and, except when solid projectiles are used, a fuze; c.
bomb, consisting of all component parts required to drop and function the bomb once;
d. missile, consisting of a complete warhead section and a missile body with its
associated components and propellants; and e. rocket, consisting of all components
necessary to function.

complex contingency operations — Large-scale peace operations (or elements thereof)
conducted by a combination of military forces and nonmilitary organizations that
involve one or more of the elements of peace operations that include one or more
elements of other types of operations such as foreign humanitarian assistance, nation
assistance, support to insurgency, or support to counterinsurgency. Also called CCOs.
See also operation; peace operations. (JP 3-08)

component — 1. One of the subordinate organizations that constitute a joint force.
Normally a joint force is organized with a combination of Service and functional
components. (JP 1) 2. In logistics, a part or combination of parts having a specific
function, which can be installed or replaced only as an entity. (JP 4-0) Also called
COMP. See also functional component command; Service component command.

component (materiel) — An assembly or any combination of parts, subassemblies, and
assemblies mounted together in manufacture, assembly, maintenance, or rebuild.

component-owned container — A 20- or 40-foot International Organization for
Standardization container procured and owned by a single Department of Defense
component. May be either on an individual unit property book or contained within a
component pool (e.g., Marine Corps maritime pre-positioning force containers). May
be temporarily assigned to the Department of Defense common-use container system.
Also called Service-unique container. See also common-use container. (JP 4-01.7)

composite air photography — Air photographs made with a camera having one principal
lens and two or more surrounding and oblique lenses. The several resulting
photographs are corrected or transformed in printing to permit assembly as verticals
with the same scale.

composite warfare commander — The officer in tactical command is normally the
composite warfare commander. However the composite warfare commander concept
allows an officer in tactical command to delegate tactical command to the composite
warfare commander. The composite warfare commander wages combat operations to
counter threats to the force and to maintain tactical sea control with assets assigned;
while the officer in tactical command retains close control of power projection and
strategic sea control operations. (JP 3-02)

composite wing — An Air Force wing that operates more than one type of weapon system.
Some composite wings are built from the ground up and designed to put all resources
required to meet a specific warfighting objective in a single wing under one
commander at one location. Other composite wings need not be built from the ground
up but combine different weapon systems operating at the same base into a single wing.

compression chamber — See hyperbaric chamber.

compromise — The known or suspected exposure of clandestine personnel, installations, or
other assets or of classified information or material, to an unauthorized person.

compromised — (*) A term applied to classified matter, knowledge of which has, in whole
or in part, passed to an unauthorized person or persons, or which has been subject to
risk of such passing. See also classified matter.

computed air release point — (*) A computed air position where the first paratroop or
cargo item is released to land on a specified impact point.

computer intrusion — An incident of unauthorized access to data or an automated
information system.

computer intrusion detection — The process of identifying that a computer intrusion has
been attempted, is occurring, or has occurred.

computer modeling — See configuration management; independent review;
validation; verification.

computer network attack — Actions taken through the use of computer networks to
disrupt, deny, degrade, or destroy information resident in computers and computer
networks, or the computers and networks themselves. Also called CNA. See also
computer network defense; computer network exploitation; computer network
operations. (JP 3-13)

computer network defense — Actions taken to protect, monitor, analyze, detect, and
respond to unauthorized activity within the Department of Defense information systems
and computer networks. Also called CND. See also computer network attack;
computer network exploitation; computer network operations. (JP 6-0)

computer network exploitation — Enabling operations and intelligence collection
capabilities conducted through the use of computer networks to gather data from target
or adversary automated information systems or networks. Also called CNE. See also
computer network attack; computer network defense; computer network
operations. (JP 6-0)

computer network operations — Comprised of computer network attack, computer
network defense, and related computer network exploitation enabling operations. Also
called CNO. See also computer network attack; computer network defense;
computer network exploitation. (JP 3-13)

computer security — The protection resulting from all measures to deny unauthorized
access and exploitation of friendly computer systems. Also called COMPUSEC. See
also communications security. (JP 6-0)

computer simulation — See configuration management; independent review;
validation; verification.

concealment — (*) The protection from observation or surveillance. See also
camouflage; cover; screen.

concentration area — (*) 1. An area, usually in the theater of operations, where troops are
assembled before beginning active operations. 2. A limited area on which a volume of
gunfire is placed within a limited time.

concept of intelligence operations — A verbal or graphic statement, in broad outline, of an
intelligence directorate’s assumptions or intent in regard to intelligence support of an
operation or series of operations. The concept of intelligence operations, which
supports the commander’s concept of operations, is contained in the intelligence annex
of operation plans. The concept of intelligence operations is designed to give an overall
picture of intelligence support for joint operations. It is included primarily for
additional clarity of purpose. See also concept of operations. (JP 2-0)

concept of logistic support — A verbal or graphic statement, in a broad outline, of how a
commander intends to support and integrate with a concept of operations in an
operation or campaign. (JP 4-0)

concept of operations — A verbal or graphic statement that clearly and concisely expresses
what the joint force commander intends to accomplish and how it will be done using
available resources. The concept is designed to give an overall picture of the operation.
Also called commander’s concept or CONOPS. (JP 5-0)

concept plan — In the context of joint operation planning level 3 planning detail, an
operation plan in an abbreviated format that may require considerable expansion or
alteration to convert it into a complete operation plan or operation order. Also called
CONPLAN. See also operation plan. (JP 5-0)

condensation cloud — A mist or fog of minute water droplets that temporarily surrounds
the fireball following a nuclear (or atomic) detonation in a comparatively humid
atmosphere. The expansion of the air in the negative phase of the blast wave from the
explosion results in a lowering of the temperature, so that condensation of water vapor
present in the air occurs and a cloud forms. The cloud is soon dispelled when the
pressure returns to normal and the air warms up again. The phenomenon is similar to
that used by physicists in the Wilson cloud chamber and is sometimes called the cloud
chamber effect.

condensation trail — A visible cloud streak, usually brilliantly white in color, which trails
behind a missile or other vehicle in flight under certain conditions. Also called

condition — Those variables of an operational environment or situation in which a unit,
system, or individual is expected to operate and may affect performance. See also joint
mission-essential tasks.

conducting staff — See exercise directing staff.

configuration management — A discipline applying technical and administrative direction
and surveillance to: (1) identify and document the functional and physical
characteristics of a configuration item; (2) control changes to those characteristics; and
(3) record and report changes to processing and implementation status.

confirmation of information (intelligence) — An information item is said to be confirmed
when it is reported for the second time, preferably by another independent source
whose reliability is considered when confirming information. (JP 2-0)

conflict — An armed struggle or clash between organized groups within a nation or
between nations in order to achieve limited political or military objectives. Although
regular forces are often involved, irregular forces frequently predominate. Conflict
often is protracted, confined to a restricted geographic area, and constrained in
weaponry and level of violence. Within this state, military power in response to threats
may be exercised in an indirect manner while supportive of other instruments of
national power. Limited objectives may be achieved by the short, focused, and direct
application of force. (JP 3-0)

conflict prevention — A peace operation employing complementary diplomatic, civil, and,
when necessary, military means, to monitor and identify the causes of conflict, and take
timely action to prevent the occurrence, escalation, or resumption of hostilities.
Activities aimed at conflict prevention are often conducted under Chapter VI of the
United Nations Charter. Conflict prevention can include fact-finding missions,
consultations, warnings, inspections, and monitoring. (JP 3-07.3)

confusion agent — An individual who is dispatched by the sponsor for the primary purpose
of confounding the intelligence or counterintelligence apparatus of another country
rather than for the purpose of collecting and transmitting information.

confusion reflector — (*) A reflector of electromagnetic radiations used to create echoes
for confusion purposes. Radar confusion reflectors include such devices as chaff, rope,
and corner reflectors.

connecting route — (*) A route connecting axial and/or lateral routes. See also route.

consecutive voyage charter — A contract by which a commercial ship is chartered by the
Military Sealift Command for a series of specified voyages. (JP 3-02.2)

consequence management — Actions taken to maintain or restore essential services and
manage and mitigate problems resulting from disasters and catastrophes, including
natural, man-made, or terrorist incidents. Also called CM. (JP 3-28)

console — (*) A grouping of controls, indicators, and similar electronic or mechanical
equipment, used to monitor readiness of, and/or control specific functions of, a system,
such as missile checkout, countdown, or launch operations.

consolidated vehicle table — A summary of all vehicles loaded on a ship, listed by types
and showing the units to which they belong.

consolidation — The combining or merging of elements to perform a common or related

consolidation of position — (*) Organizing and strengthening a newly captured position
so that it can be used against the enemy.

constellation — A number of like satellites that are part of a system. Satellites in a
constellation generally have a similar orbit. For example, the Global Positioning
System constellation consists of 24 satellites distributed in six orbital planes with
similar eccentricities, altitudes, and inclinations. See also Global Positioning System.
(JP 3-14)

constitute — To provide the legal authority for the existence of a new unit of the Armed
Services. The new unit is designated and listed, but it has no specific existence until it
is activated. See also commission.

constraint — In the context of joint operation planning, a requirement placed on the
command by a higher command that dictates an action, thus restricting freedom of
action. See also operational limitation; restraint. (JP 5-0)
consumable supplies and materiel — See expendable supplies and materiel.

consumer — Person or agency that uses information or intelligence produced by either its
own staff or other agencies.

consumer logistics — That part of logistics concerning reception of the initial product,
storage, inspection, distribution, transport, maintenance (including repair and
serviceability), and disposal of materiel as well as the provision of support and services.
In consequence, consumer logistics includes materiel requirements determination,
follow-on support, stock control, provision or construction of facilities (excluding any
materiel element and those facilities needed to support production logistic activities),
movement control, codification, reliability and defect reporting, storage, transport and
handling safety standards, and related training.

consumption rate — (*) The average quantity of an item consumed or expended during a
given time interval, expressed in quantities by the most appropriate unit of
measurement per applicable stated basis.

contact — 1. In air intercept, a term meaning, “Unit has an unevaluated target.” 2. In
health services, an unevaluated individual who is known to have been sufficiently near
an infected individual to have been exposed to the transfer of infectious material.

contact burst preclusion — A fuzing arrangement that prevents an unwanted surface burst
in the event of failure of the air burst fuze.

contact mine — (*) A mine detonated by physical contact. See also mine.

contact point — (*) 1. In land warfare, a point on the terrain, easily identifiable, where two
or more units are required to make contact. 2. In air operations, the position at which a
mission leader makes radio contact with an air control agency. 3. (DOD only) In
personnel recovery, a location where isolated personnel can establish contact with
recovery forces. Also called CP. See also checkpoint; control point; coordinating
point. (JP 3-50)

contact print — (*) A print made from a negative or a diapositive in direct contact with
sensitized material.

contact procedure — Those predesignated actions taken by isolated personnel and
recovery forces that permit link-up between the two parties in hostile territory and
facilitate the return of isolated personnel to friendly control. See also evader; hostile;
recovery force. (JP 3-50)

contact reconnaissance — Locating isolated units out of contact with the main force.

contact report — (*) A report indicating any detection of the enemy.

contain — To stop, hold, or surround the forces of the enemy or to cause the enemy to
center activity on a given front and to prevent the withdrawal of any part of the
enemy’s forces for use elsewhere.

container — An article of transport equipment that meets American National Standards
Institute/International Organization for Standardization standards that is designed to be
transported by various modes of transportation. These containers are also designed to
facilitate and optimize the carriage of goods by one or more modes of transportation
without intermediate handling of the contents and equipped with features permitting
ready handling and transfer from one mode to another. Containers may be fully
enclosed with one or more doors, open top, refrigerated, tank, open rack, gondola,
flatrack, and other designs. See also containerization. (JP 4-01)

container anchorage terminal — (*) A sheltered anchorage (not a port) with the
appropriate facilities for the transshipment of containerized cargo from containerships
to other vessels.

container control officer — A designated official (E6 or above or civilian equivalent)
within a command, installation, or activity who is responsible for control, reporting,
use, and maintenance of all Department of Defense-owned and controlled intermodal
containers and equipment. This officer has custodial responsibility for containers from
time received until dispatched. (JP 4-01.7)

container-handling equipment — Items of materials-handling equipment required to
specifically receive, maneuver, and dispatch International Organization for
Standardization containers. Also called CHE. See also materials handling
equipment. (JP 4-01.7)

containerization — The use of containers to unitize cargo for transportation, supply, and
storage. Containerization incorporates supply, transportation, packaging, storage, and
security together with visibility of container and its contents into a distribution system
from source to user. See also container. (JP 4-01)

containership — A ship specially constructed and equipped to carry only containers
without associated equipment, in all available cargo spaces, either below or above deck.
Containerships are usually non-self-sustaining, do not have built-in capability to load or
off-load containers, and require port crane service. A containership with
shipboard-installed cranes capable of loading and off-loading containers without
assistance of port crane service is considered self-sustaining. See also
non-self-sustaining containership; self-sustaining containership. (JP 4-01.7)

containership cargo stowage adapter — Serves as the bottom-most temporary deck and
precludes the necessity of strengthening of tank tops or the installation of hard points
on decks, thereby accelerating containership readiness. (JP 4-01.6)
contaminated remains — Remains of personnel which have absorbed or upon which have
been deposited radioactive material, or biological or chemical agents. See also
mortuary affairs. (JP 4-06)

contamination — (*) 1. The deposit, absorption, or adsorption of radioactive material, or
of biological or chemical agents on or by structures, areas, personnel, or objects. See
also induced radiation; residual radiation. 2. (DOD only) Food and/or water made
unfit for consumption by humans or animals because of the presence of environmental
chemicals, radioactive elements, bacteria or organisms, the byproduct of the growth of
bacteria or organisms, the decomposing material (to include the food substance itself),
or waste in the food or water. (JP 3-11)

contamination avoidance — Individual and/or unit measures taken to reduce the effects of
chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear hazards. (JP 3-11)

contamination control — A combination of preparatory and responsive measures designed
to limit the vulnerability of forces to chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and
toxic industrial hazards and to avoid, contain, control exposure to, and, where possible,
neutralize them. See also biological agent; chemical agent; contamination. (JP 3-11)

contiguous zone — 1. A maritime zone adjacent to the territorial sea that may not extend
beyond 24 nautical miles (nms) from the baselines from which the breadth of the
territorial sea is measured. Within the contiguous zone the coastal state may exercise
the control necessary to prevent and punish infringement of its customs, fiscal,
immigration, or sanitary laws and regulations within its territory or territorial sea. In all
other respects the contiguous zone is an area subject to high seas freedom of
navigation, overflight, and related freedoms, such as the conduct of military exercises.
2. The zone of the ocean extending 3-12 nms from the US coastline.

continental United States — United States territory, including the adjacent territorial
waters, located within North America between Canada and Mexico. Also called

contingency — A situation requiring military operations in response to natural disasters,
terrorists, subversives, or as otherwise directed by appropriate authority to protect US
interests. See also contingency contracting. (JP 5-0)

contingency contract — A legally binding agreement for supplies, services, and
construction let by government contracting officers in the operational area as well as
other contracts that have a prescribed area of performance within a designated
operational area. See also external support contract; systems support contract;
theater support contract. (JP 4-10)

contingency contracting — The process of obtaining goods, services, and construction via
contracting means in support of contingency operations. See also contingency;
contingency contract. (JP 4-10)

contingency engineering management organization — An organization that may be
formed by the combatant commander or subordinate joint force commander to augment
the combatant command or subordinate joint force staffs to provide additional Service
engineering expertise to support both contingency and crisis action planning and to
provide construction management in contingency and wartime operations. See also
combat engineering; contingency; crisis action planning; geospatial engineering.
(JP 3-34)

contingency operation — A military operation that is either designated by the Secretary of
Defense as a contingency operation or becomes a contingency operation as a matter of
law (Title 10 United States Code, Section 101[a][13]). It is a military operation that: a.
is designated by the Secretary of Defense as an operation in which members of the
Armed Forces are or may become involved in military actions, operations, or hostilities
against an enemy of the United States or against an opposing force; or b. is created by
definition of law. Under Title 10 United States Code, Section 101 [a][13][B], a
contingency operation exists if a military operation results in the (1) call-up to (or
retention on) active duty of members of the uniformed Services under certain
enumerated statutes (Title 10 United States Code, Sections 688, 12301(a), 12302,
12304, 12305, 12406, or 331-335); and (2) the call-up to (or retention on) active duty of
members of the uniformed Services under other (non-enumerated) statutes during war
or national emergency declared by the President or Congress. See also contingency;
operation. (JP 1)

contingency planning — The Joint Operation Planning and Execution System planning
activities that occur in noncrisis situations. The Joint Planning and Execution
Community uses contingency planning to develop operation plans for a broad range of
contingencies based on requirements identified in the Contingency Planning Guidance,
Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan, or other planning directive. Contingency planning
underpins and facilitates the transition to crisis action planning. (JP 5-0)

contingency planning facilities list program — A joint Defense Intelligence Agency and
unified and specified command program for the production and maintenance of current
target documentation of all countries of contingency planning interest to US military

Contingency Planning Guidance — The Contingency Planning Guidance (CPG) fulfills
the statutory duty of the Secretary of Defense to furnish written policy guidance
annually to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff for contingency planning. The
Secretary issues this guidance with the approval of the President after consultation with
the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The CPG focuses the guidance given in the
National Security Strategy and Defense Planning Guidance, and is the principal source
document for the Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan. Also called CPG.

contingency response program — Fast reaction transportation procedures intended to
provide for priority use of land transportation assets by Department of Defense when
required. Also called CORE. (JP 4-01)

contingency retention stock — That portion of the quantity of an item excess to the
approved force retention level for which there is no predictable demand or quantifiable
requirement, and which normally would be allocated as potential DOD excess stock,
except for a determination that the quantity will be retained for possible contingencies
for United States forces. (Category C ships, aircraft, and other items being retained as
contingency reserve are included in this stratum.)

contingency ZIP Code — A ZIP Code assigned by Military Postal Service Agency to a
contingency post office for the tactical use of the Armed Forces on a temporary basis.
The number consists of a five-digit base with a four-digit add-on to assist in routing and
sorting. (JP 1-0)

contingent effects — The effects, both desirable and undesirable, that are in addition to the
primary effects associated with a nuclear detonation.

continuity of command — The degree or state of being continuous in the exercise of the
authority vested in an individual of the Armed Forces for the direction, coordination,
and control of military forces.

continuity of operations — The degree or state of being continuous in the conduct of
functions, tasks, or duties necessary to accomplish a military action or mission in
carrying out the national military strategy. It includes the functions and duties of the
commander, as well as the supporting functions and duties performed by the staff and
others acting under the authority and direction of the commander. Also called COOP.

continuous fire — (*) 1. Fire conducted at a normal rate without interruption for
application of adjustment corrections or for other causes. 2. In field artillery and naval
gunfire support, loading and firing at a specified rate or as rapidly as possible consistent
with accuracy within the prescribed rate of fire for the weapon. Firing will continue
until terminated by the command “end of mission” or temporarily suspended by the
command “cease loading” or “check firing.”

continuous illumination fire — (*) A type of fire in which illuminating projectiles are
fired at specified time intervals to provide uninterrupted lighting on the target or
specified area.

continuous strip camera — (*) A camera in which the film moves continuously past a slit
in the focal plane, producing a photograph in one unbroken length by virtue of the
continuous forward motion of the aircraft.

continuous strip imagery — (*) Imagery of a strip of terrain in which the image remains
unbroken throughout its length, along the line of flight.

contour flight — See terrain flight.

contour interval — (*) Difference in elevation between two adjacent contour lines.

contour line — (*) A line on a map or chart connecting points of equal elevation.

contract administration — A subset of contracting that includes efforts to ensure that
supplies, services, and construction are delivered in accordance with the terms and
conditions of the contract. (JP 4-10)

contracted logistic support — Support in which maintenance operations for a particular
military system are performed exclusively by contract support personnel. Also called
CLS. See also logistic support; support. (JP 4-07)

contracting officer — The Service member or Department of Defense civilian with the
legal authority to enter into, administer, modify, and/or terminate contracts. (JP 4-10)

contracting officer representative — A Service member or Department of Defense
civilian appointed in writing and trained by a contracting officer, responsible for
monitoring contract performance and performing other duties specified by their
appointment letter. Also called COR. (JP 4-10)

contractor management — The oversight and integration of contractor personnel and
associated equipment providing support to the joint force in a designated operational
area. (JP 4-10)

contractors authorized to accompany the force — Contingency contractor employees and
all tiers of subcontractor employees who are specifically authorized through their
contract to accompany the force and have protected status in accordance with
international conventions. Also called CAAF. (JP 4-10)

contractors not authorized to accompany the force — Contingency contractor employees
and all tiers of subcontractor employees who are not authorized through their contract
to accompany the force and do not have protected status in accordance with
international conventions. Also called non-CAAF. (JP 4-10)

contract support integration — The coordination and synchronization of contracted
support executed in a designated operational area in support of the joint force. (JP 4-10)

contract termination — Defense procurement: the cessation or cancellation, in whole or in
part, of work under a prime contract or a subcontract thereunder for the convenience of,
or at the option of, the government, or due to failure of the contractor to perform in
accordance with the terms of the contract (default). (JP 4-10)

control — 1. Authority that may be less than full command exercised by a commander
over part of the activities of subordinate or other organizations. 2. In mapping,
charting, and photogrammetry, a collective term for a system of marks or objects on the
Earth or on a map or a photograph, whose positions or elevations (or both) have been or
will be determined. 3. Physical or psychological pressures exerted with the intent to
assure that an agent or group will respond as directed. 4. An indicator governing the
distribution and use of documents, information, or material. Such indicators are the
subject of intelligence community agreement and are specifically defined in appropriate
regulations. See also administrative control; operational control; tactical control.

control area — (*) A controlled airspace extending upwards from a specified limit above
the Earth. See also controlled airspace; control zone; terminal control area. (JP 3-04)

control group — Personnel, ships, and craft designated to control the waterborne
ship-to-shore movement. (JP 3-02)

control (intelligence) — See control, Parts 3 and 4.

controllable mine — (*) A mine which after laying can be controlled by the user, to the
extent of making the mine safe or live, or to fire the mine. See also mine.

controlled airspace — (*) An airspace of defined dimensions within which air traffic
control service is provided to controlled flights.

controlled dangerous air cargo — (*) Cargo which is regarded as highly dangerous and
which may only be carried by cargo aircraft operating within specific safety

controlled effects nuclear weapons — Nuclear weapons designed to achieve variation in
the intensity of specific effects other than normal blast effect.

controlled exercise — (*) An exercise characterized by the imposition of constraints on
some or all of the participating units by planning authorities with the principal intention
of provoking types of interaction. See also free play exercise.

controlled firing area — An area in which ordnance firing is conducted under controlled
conditions so as to eliminate hazard to aircraft in flight. See also restricted area.

controlled forces — Military or paramilitary forces under effective and sustained political
and military direction.

controlled information — 1. Information conveyed to an adversary in a deception
operation to evoke desired appreciations. 2. Information and indicators deliberately
conveyed or denied to foreign targets to evoke invalid official estimates that result in
foreign official actions advantageous to US interests and objectives.

controlled item — See regulated item.

controlled map — A map with precise horizontal and vertical ground control as a basis.
Scale, azimuth, and elevation are accurate. See also map.

controlled mosaic — (*) A mosaic corrected for scale, rectified and laid to ground control
to provide an accurate representation of distances and direction. See also mosaic;

controlled passing — (*) A traffic movement procedure whereby two lines of traffic
travelling in opposite directions are enabled to traverse alternately a point or section of
route which can take only one line of traffic at a time.

controlled port — (*) A harbor or anchorage at which entry and departure, assignment of
berths, and traffic within the harbor or anchorage are controlled by military authorities.

controlled reprisal — Not to be used. See controlled response.
controlled response — The selection from a wide variety of feasible options one of which
will provide the specific military response most advantageous in the circumstances.

controlled route — (*) A route, the use of which is subject to traffic or movement
restrictions which may be supervised. See also route.

controlled shipping — Shipping that is controlled by the Military Sealift Command.
Included in this category are Military Sealift Command ships (United States Naval
Ships), government-owned ships operated under a general agency agreement, and
commercial ships under charter to the Military Sealift Command. See also Military
Sealift Command; United States Naval Ship. (JP 3-02.2)

controlled substance — A drug or other substance, or immediate precursor included in
Schedule I, II, III, IV, or V of the Controlled Substances Act. (JP 3-07.4)

controlled war — Not to be used. See limited war.

control of electromagnetic radiation — A national operation plan to minimize the use of
electromagnetic radiation in the United States and its possessions and the Panama
Canal Zone in the event of attack or imminent threat thereof, as an aid to the navigation
of hostile aircraft, guided missiles, or other devices. See also emission control orders.

control point — (*) 1. A position along a route of march at which men are stationed to
give information and instructions for the regulation of supply or traffic. 2. A position
marked by a buoy, boat, aircraft, electronic device, conspicuous terrain feature, or other
identifiable object which is given a name or number and used as an aid to navigation or
control of ships, boats, or aircraft. 3. In marking mosaics, a point located by ground
survey with which a corresponding point on a photograph is matched as a check.

control zone — (*) A controlled airspace extending upwards from the surface of the Earth
to a specified upper limit. See also control area; controlled airspace; terminal
control area.

conventional forces — 1. Those forces capable of conducting operations using nonnuclear
weapons. 2. Those forces other than designated special operations forces. (JP 3-05)

conventional mines — Land mines, other than nuclear or chemical, that are not designed to
self-destruct. They are designed to be emplaced by hand or mechanical means.
Conventional mines can be buried or surface laid and are normally emplaced in a
pattern to aid in recording. See also mine. (JP 3-15)

conventional weapon — (*) A weapon which is neither nuclear, biological, nor chemical.

converge — A request or command used in a call for fire to indicate that the observer or
spotter desires a sheaf in which the planes of fire intersect at a point.

converged sheaf — The lateral distribution of fire of two or more pieces so that the planes
of fire intersect at a given point. See also parallel sheaf.

convergence — See convergence factor; grid convergence; grid convergence factor;
map convergence; true convergence.

convergence factor — (*) The ratio of the angle between any two meridians on the chart to
their actual change of longitude. See also convergence.

convergence zone — That region in the deep ocean where sound rays, refractured from the
depths, return to the surface.

conversion angle — (*) The angle between a great circle (orthodromic) bearing and a
rhumb line (loxodromic) bearing of a point, measured at a common origin.

conversion scale — (*) A scale indicating the relationship between two different units of
measurement. See also scale.

convoy — 1. A number of merchant ships and/or naval auxiliaries usually escorted by
warships and/or aircraft — or a single merchant ship or naval auxiliary under surface

escort — assembled and organized for the purpose of passage together. 2. A group of
vehicles organized for the purpose of control and orderly movement with or without
escort protection that moves over the same route at the same time and under one
commander. See also coastal convoy; evacuation convoy; ocean convoy.

convoy commodore — A naval officer, or master of one of the ships in a convoy,
designated to command the convoy, subject to the orders of the officer in tactical
command. If no surface escort is present, the convoy commodore takes entire

convoy dispersal point — (*) The position at sea where a convoy breaks up, each ship
proceeding independently thereafter.

convoy escort — (*) 1. A naval ship(s) or aircraft in company with a convoy and
responsible for its protection. 2. An escort to protect a convoy of vehicles from being
scattered, destroyed, or captured. See also escort.

convoy joiner — See joiner. See also joiner convoy; joiner section.

convoy leaver — See leaver. See also leaver convoy; leaver section.

convoy loading — (*) The loading of troop units with their equipment and supplies in
vessels of the same movement group, but not necessarily in the same vessel. See also

convoy route — (*) The specific route assigned to each convoy by the appropriate routing

convoy schedule — (*) Planned convoy sailings showing the shipping lanes, assembly and
terminal areas, scheduled speed, and sailing interval.

convoy speed — (*) For ships, the speed which the convoy commodore orders the guide of
the convoy to make good through the water.

convoy terminal area — (*) A geographical area, designated by the name of a port or
anchorage on which it is centered, at which convoys or sections of convoys arrive and
from which they will be dispersed to coastal convoy systems or as independents to their
final destination.

convoy through escort — (*) Those ships of the close escort which normally remain with
the convoy from its port of assembly to its port of arrival.

convoy title — (*) A combination of letters and numbers that gives the port of departure
and arrival, speed, and serial number of each convoy.

cooperating agency — An agency that provides technical and resource support (including
planning, training, and exercising), at the request of the coordinating agency, to conduct
operations using their own authorities, subject-matter experts, capabilities or resources
(i.e., personnel, equipment, or other resource support). The Department of Defense is
considered a cooperating agency for the majority of the National Response Plan
support annexes. (JP 3-28)

cooperative logistics — The logistic support provided a foreign government or agency
through its participation in the US Department of Defense logistic system, with
reimbursement to the United States for support provided.

cooperative logistic support arrangements — The combining term for procedural
arrangements (cooperative logistic arrangements) and implementing procedures
(supplementary procedures) that together support, define, or implement cooperative
logistic understandings between the United States and a friendly foreign government
under peacetime conditions.

cooperative security location — A facility located outside the United States and US
territories with little or no permanent US presence, maintained with periodic Service,
contractor, or host-nation support. Cooperative security locations provide contingency
access, logistic support, and rotational use by operating forces and are a focal point for
security cooperation activities. Also called CSL. See also forward operating site;
main operating base. (CJCS CM-0007-05)

coordinated draft plan — (*) A plan for which a draft plan has been coordinated with the
nations involved. It may be used for future planning and exercises and may be
implemented during an emergency. See also draft plan; final plan; initial draft plan;
operation plan.

coordinated fire line — A line beyond which conventional and indirect surface fire support
means may fire at any time within the boundaries of the establishing headquarters
without additional coordination. The purpose of the coordinated fire line is to expedite
the surface-to-surface attack of targets beyond the coordinated fire line without
coordination with the ground commander in whose area the targets are located. Also
called CFL. See also fire support. (JP 3-09)

coordinated procurement assignee — The agency or Military Service assigned purchase
responsibility for all Department of Defense requirements of a particular Federal
Supply Group/class, commodity, or item.

Coordinated Universal Time — An atomic time scale that is the basis for broadcast time
signals. Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) differs from International Atomic Time by
an integral number of seconds; it is maintained within 0.9 seconds of UT1 (see
Universal Time) by introduction of Leap Seconds. The rotational orientation of the
Earth, specified by UT1, may be obtained to an accuracy of a tenth of a second by
applying the UTC to the increment DUT1 (where DUT1 = UT1 - UTC) that is
broadcast in code with the time signals. Also called UTC. See also International
Atomic Time; Universal Time; ZULU Time.

coordinates — (*) Linear or angular quantities which designate the position that a point
occupies in a given reference frame or system. Also used as a general term to designate
the particular kind of reference frame or system such as plane rectangular coordinates
or spherical coordinates. See also geographic coordinates; georef; grid coordinates.

coordinating agency — An agency that supports the incident management mission by
providing the leadership, expertise, and authorities to implement critical and specific
aspects of the response. Responsible for orchestrating a coordinated response, provides
staff for operations functions, notifies and tasks cooperating agencies, manages tasks
with cooperating agencies, works with private-sector organizations, communicates
ongoing activities to organizational elements, plans for short- and long-term incident
management and maintains trained personnel to execute their appropriate support
responsibilities. (JP 3-28)

coordinating altitude — A procedural airspace control method to separate fixed- and
rotary-wing aircraft by determining an altitude below which fixed-wing aircraft will
normally not fly and above which rotary-wing aircraft normally will not fly. The
coordinating altitude is normally specified in the airspace control plan and may include
a buffer zone for small altitude deviations. (JP 3-52)

coordinating authority — A commander or individual assigned responsibility for
coordinating specific functions or activities involving forces of two or more Military
Departments, two or more joint force components, or two or more forces of the same
Service. The commander or individual has the authority to require consultation
between the agencies involved, but does not have the authority to compel agreement.
In the event that essential agreement cannot be obtained, the matter shall be referred to
the appointing authority. Coordinating authority is a consultation relationship, not an
authority through which command may be exercised. Coordinating authority is more
applicable to planning and similar activities than to operations. (JP 1)

coordinating point — (*) Designated point at which, in all types of combat, adjacent
units/formations must make contact for purposes of control and coordination.

coordinating review authority — An agency appointed by a Service or combatant
command to coordinate with and assist the primary review authority in joint doctrine
development and maintenance. Each Service or combatant command must assign a
coordinating review authority. When authorized by the appointing Service or
combatant command, coordinating review authority comments provided to designated
primary review authorities will represent the position of the appointing Service or
combatant command with regard to the publication under development. Also called
CRA. See also joint doctrine; joint publication; lead agent; primary review
authority. (CJCSI 5120.02A)

coproduction — 1. With respect to exports, a cooperative manufacturing arrangement
(e.g., US Government or company with foreign government or company) providing for
the transfer of production information that enables an eligible foreign government,
international organization, or commercial producer to manufacture, in whole or in part,
an item of US defense equipment. Such an arrangement would include the functions of
production engineering, controlling, quality assurance, and determination of resource
requirements. This is normally accomplished under the provisions of a manufacturing
license agreement per the US International Traffic in Arms Regulation and could
involve the implementation of a government-to- government memorandum of
understanding. 2. A cooperative manufacturing arrangement (US Government or
company with foreign government or company) providing for the transfer of
production information which enables the receiving government, international
organization, or commercial producer to manufacture, in whole or in part, an item of
defense equipment. The receiving party could be an eligible foreign government,
international organization, or foreign producer; or the US Government or a US
producer, depending on which direction the information is to flow. A typical
coproduction arrangement would include the functions of production engineering,
controlling, quality assurance, and determining of resource requirements. It may or
may not include design engineering information and critical materials production and
design information.

copy negative — (*) A negative produced from an original not necessarily at the same

corner reflector — (*) 1. A device, normally consisting of three metallic surfaces or
screens perpendicular to one another, designed to act as a radar target or marker. 2. In
radar interpretation, an object which, by means of multiple reflections from smooth
surfaces, produces a radar return of greater magnitude than might be expected from the
physical size of the object.

corps support command — Provides corps logistic support and command and control of
water supply battalions. (JP 4-01.6)

corps troops — (*) Troops assigned or attached to a corps, but not a part of one of the
divisions that make up the corps.

correlation factor — (*) The ratio of a ground dose rate reading to a reading taken at
approximately the same time at survey height over the same point on the ground.

cost-plus award fee contract — A type of contract that provides for a payment consisting
of a base amount fixed at inception of the contract along with an award amount that is
based upon a judgmental evaluation by the United States Government. (JP 4-10)

cost-type contract — A contract that provides for payment to the contractor of allowable
cost, to the extent prescribed in the contract, incurred in performance of the contract.
(JP 4-10)

counterair — A mission that integrates offensive and defensive operations to attain and
maintain a desired degree of air superiority. Counterair missions are designed to
destroy or negate enemy aircraft and missiles, both before and after launch. See also
air superiority; mission; offensive counterair. (JP 3-01)

counterattack — Attack by part or all of a defending force against an enemy attacking
force, for such specific purposes as regaining ground lost or cutting off or destroying
enemy advance units, and with the general objective of denying to the enemy the
attainment of the enemy’s purpose in attacking. In sustained defensive operations, it is
undertaken to restore the battle position and is directed at limited objectives. See also
countermove; counteroffensive.

counterbattery fire — (*) Fire delivered for the purpose of destroying or neutralizing
indirect fire weapon systems.

counterdeception — Efforts to negate, neutralize, diminish the effects of, or gain advantage
from a foreign deception operation. Counterdeception does not include the intelligence
function of identifying foreign deception operations. See also deception.

counterdrug — Those active measures taken to detect, monitor, and counter the
production, trafficking, and use of illegal drugs. Also called CD and
counternarcotics (CN). (JP 3-07.4)

counterdrug activities — Those measures taken to detect, interdict, disrupt, or curtail any
activity that is reasonably related to illicit drug trafficking. This includes, but is not
limited to, measures taken to detect, interdict, disrupt, or curtail activities related to
substances, materiel, weapons, or resources used to finance, support, secure, cultivate,
process, or transport illegal drugs. (JP 3-07.4)

counterdrug nonoperational support — Support provided to law enforcement agencies or
host nations that includes loan or lease of equipment without operators, use of facilities
(such as buildings, training areas, and ranges), training conducted in formal schools,
transfer of excess equipment, or other support provided by the Services from forces not
assigned or made available to the combatant commanders. See also counterdrug
operational support; counterdrug operations. (JP 3-07.4)

counterdrug operational support — Support to host nations and drug law enforcement
agencies involving military personnel and their associated equipment, provided by the
geographic combatant commanders from forces assigned to them or made available to
them by the Services for this purpose. See also counterdrug nonoperational
support; counterdrug operations. (JP 3-07.4)

counterdrug operations — Civil or military actions taken to reduce or eliminate illicit
drug trafficking. See also counterdrug; counterdrug nonoperational support;
counterdrug operational support. (JP 3-07.4)

counternarcotics — See counterdrug. (JP 3-07.4)

counterespionage — That aspect of counterintelligence designed to detect, destroy,
neutralize, exploit, or prevent espionage activities through identification, penetration,
manipulation, deception, and repression of individuals, groups, or organizations
conducting or suspected of conducting espionage activities.

counterfire — (*) Fire intended to destroy or neutralize enemy weapons. (DOD only)
Includes counterbattery, counterbombardment, and countermortar fire. See also fire.

counterforce — The employment of strategic air and missile forces in an effort to destroy,
or render impotent, selected military capabilities of an enemy force under any of the
circumstances by which hostilities may be initiated.

counterguerrilla warfare — (*) Operations and activities conducted by armed forces,
paramilitary forces, or nonmilitary agencies against guerrillas.

counterinsurgency — Those military, paramilitary, political, economic, psychological, and
civic actions taken by a government to defeat insurgency. Also called COIN.

counterintelligence — Information gathered and activities conducted to protect against
espionage, other intelligence activities, sabotage, or assassinations conducted by or on
behalf of foreign governments or elements thereof, foreign organizations, or foreign
persons, or international terrorist activities. Also called CI. See also
counterespionage; countersabotage; countersubversion; security; security
intelligence. (JP 2-0)

counterintelligence activities — One or more of the five functions of counterintelligence:
operations, investigations, collection, analysis and production, and functional services.
See also analysis and production; collection; counterintelligence; operation.
(JP 2-01.2)

counterintelligence collection — The systematic acquisition of information (through
investigations, operations, or liaison) concerning espionage, sabotage, terrorism, other
intelligence activities or assassinations conducted by or on behalf of foreign
governments or elements thereof, foreign organizations, or foreign persons that are
directed against or threaten Department of Defense interests. See also
counterintelligence. (JP 2-01.2)

counterintelligence investigation — An official, systematic search for facts to determine
whether a person(s) is engaged in activities that may be injurious to US national
security or advantageous to a foreign power. See also counterintelligence. (JP 2-01.2)

counterintelligence operational tasking authority — The levying of counterintelligence
requirements specific to joint military activities and operations. Counterintelligence
operational tasking authority is exercised through supporting components. Also called
CIOTA. See also counterintelligence. (JP 2-01.2)

counterintelligence operations — Proactive activities designed to identify, exploit,
neutralize, or deter foreign intelligence collection and terrorist activities directed against
the United States. See also counterintelligence; operation. (JP 2-01.2)

counterintelligence production — The process of analyzing all-source information
concerning espionage or other multidiscipline intelligence collection threats, sabotage,
terrorism, and other related threats to US military commanders, the Department of
Defense, and the US Intelligence Community and developing it into a final product that
is disseminated. Counterintelligence production is used in formulating security policy,
plans, and operations. See also counterintelligence. (JP 2-01.2)

counterintelligence support — Conducting counterintelligence activities to protect against
espionage and other foreign intelligence activities, sabotage, international terrorist
activities, or assassinations conducted for or on behalf of foreign powers, organizations,
or persons. See also counterintelligence. (JP 2-01.2)

countermeasures — That form of military science that, by the employment of devices
and/or techniques, has as its objective the impairment of the operational effectiveness
of enemy activity. See also electronic warfare.

countermine — (*) To explode the main charge in a mine by the shock of a nearby
explosion of another mine or independent explosive charge. The explosion of the main
charge may be caused either by sympathetic detonation or through the explosive train
and/or firing mechanism of the mine.

countermine operation — (*) In land mine warfare, an operation to reduce or eliminate
the effects of mines or minefields. See also countermine; mine warfare.

countermobility operations — The construction of obstacles and emplacement of
minefields to delay, disrupt, and destroy the enemy by reinforcement of the terrain. See
also minefield; operation; target acquisition. (JP 3-34)

countermove — (*) An operation undertaken in reaction to or in anticipation of a move by
the enemy. See also counterattack.

counteroffensive — A large scale offensive undertaken by a defending force to seize the
initiative from the attacking force. See also counterattack.

counterpreparation fire — (*) Intensive prearranged fire delivered when the imminence
of the enemy attack is discovered. (DOD only) It is designed to: break up enemy
formations; disorganize the enemy’s systems of command, communications, and
observation; decrease the effectiveness of artillery preparation; and impair the enemy’s
offensive spirit. See also fire.

counterproliferation — Those actions (e.g., detect and monitor, prepare to conduct
counterproliferation operations, offensive operations, weapons of mass destruction,
active defense, and passive defense) taken to defeat the threat and/or use of weapons of
mass destruction against the United States, our military forces, friends, and allies. Also
called CP. See also nonproliferation. (JP 3-40)

counterpropaganda operations — Those psychological operations activities that identify
adversary propaganda, contribute to situational awareness, and serve to expose
adversary attempts to influence friendly populations and military forces. (JP 3-53)

counterreconnaissance — All measures taken to prevent hostile observation of a force,
area, or place.

countersabotage — That aspect of counterintelligence designed to detect, destroy,
neutralize, or prevent sabotage activities through identification, penetration,
manipulation, deception, and repression of individuals, groups, or organizations
conducting or suspected of conducting sabotage activities.

countersign — (*) A secret challenge and its reply. See also challenge; password.

countersubversion — That aspect of counterintelligence designed to detect, destroy,
neutralize, or prevent subversive activities through the identification, exploitation,
penetration, manipulation, deception, and repression of individuals, groups, or
organizations conducting or suspected of conducting subversive activities.

countersurveillance — All measures, active or passive, taken to counteract hostile
surveillance. See also surveillance.

counterterrorism — Operations that include the offensive measures taken to prevent, deter,
preempt, and respond to terrorism. Also called CT. See also antiterrorism;
combating terrorism; terrorism. (JP 3-05)

country cover diagram — (*) A small scale index, by country, depicting the existence of
air photography for planning purposes only.

country team — The senior, in-country, US coordinating and supervising body, headed by
the chief of the US diplomatic mission, and composed of the senior member of each
represented US department or agency, as desired by the chief of the US diplomatic
mission. (JP 3-07.4)

coup de main — An offensive operation that capitalizes on surprise and simultaneous
execution of supporting operations to achieve success in one swift stroke. (JP 3-0)

courier — A messenger (usually a commissioned or warrant officer) responsible for the
secure physical transmission and delivery of documents and material. Generally
referred to as a command or local courier. See also armed forces courier.

course — (*) The intended direction of movement in the horizontal plane.

course of action — 1. Any sequence of activities that an individual or unit may follow. 2.
A possible plan open to an individual or commander that would accomplish, or is
related to the accomplishment of the mission. 3. The scheme adopted to accomplish a
job or mission. 4. A line of conduct in an engagement. 5. A product of the Joint
Operation Planning and Execution System concept development phase and the courseof-
action determination steps of the joint operation planning process. Also called
COA. (JP 5-0)

cover — (*) 1. The action by land, air, or sea forces to protect by offense, defense, or
threat of either or both. 2. Those measures necessary to give protection to a person,
plan, operation, formation, or installation from the enemy intelligence effort and
leakage of information. 3. The act of maintaining a continuous receiver watch with
transmitter calibrated and available, but not necessarily available for immediate use. 4.
Shelter or protection, either natural or artificial. 5. (DOD only) Photographs or other
recorded images which show a particular area of ground. 6. (DOD only) A code
meaning, “Keep fighters between force/base and contact designated at distance stated
from force/base” (e.g., “cover bogey twenty-seven to thirty miles”).

coverage — (*) 1. The ground area represented on imagery, photomaps, mosaics, maps,
and other geographical presentation systems. 2. (DOD only) Cover or protection, as
the coverage of troops by supporting fire. 3. (DOD only) The extent to which
intelligence information is available in respect to any specified area of interest. 4.
(DOD only) The summation of the geographical areas and volumes of aerospace under
surveillance. See also comparative cover.

covering fire — (*) 1. Fire used to protect troops when they are within range of enemy
small arms. 2. In amphibious usage, fire delivered prior to the landing to cover
preparatory operations such as underwater demolition or minesweeping. See also fire.

covering force — (*) 1. A force operating apart from the main force for the purpose of
intercepting, engaging, delaying, disorganizing, and deceiving the enemy before the
enemy can attack the force covered. 2. Any body or detachment of troops which
provides security for a larger force by observation, reconnaissance, attack, or defense,
or by any combination of these methods. See also force(s). (JP 3-18)

covering force area — (*) The area forward of the forward edge of the battle area out to
the forward positions initially assigned to the covering forces. It is here that the
covering forces execute assigned tasks.

cover (military) — Actions to conceal actual friendly intentions, capabilities, operations,
and other activities by providing a plausible yet erroneous explanation of the

cover search — (*) In air photographic reconnaissance, the process of selection of the most
suitable existing cover for a specific requirement.

covert operation — An operation that is so planned and executed as to conceal the identity
of or permit plausible denial by the sponsor. A covert operation differs from a
clandestine operation in that emphasis is placed on concealment of the identity of the
sponsor rather than on concealment of the operation. See also clandestine operation;
overt operation. (JP 3-60)

coxswain — A person in charge of a small craft (in the Army, a Class B or smaller craft)
who often functions as the helmsman. For a causeway ferry, the pilot is in charge with
the coxswain performing helmsman functions. See causeway. (JP 4-01.6)

crash locator beacon — (*) An automatic emergency radio locator beacon to help
searching forces locate a crashed aircraft. See also emergency locator beacon;
personal locator beacon.

crash position indicator — See crash locator beacon.

crash rescue and fire suppression — Extraction of aircrew members from crashed or
burning aircraft and the control and extinguishing of aircraft and structural fires.
(JP 3-34)

crater — The pit, depression, or cavity formed in the surface of the Earth by an explosion.
It may range from saucer shaped to conical, depending largely on the depth of burst. In
the case of a deep underground burst, no rupture of the surface may occur. The
resulting cavity is termed a “camouflet.”

crater depth — The maximum depth of the crater measured from the deepest point of the
pit to the original ground level.

cratering charge — (*) A charge placed at an adequate depth to produce a crater.

crater radius — The average radius of the crater measured at the level corresponding to the
original surface of the ground.

creeping barrage — (*) A barrage in which the fire of all units participating remains in the
same relative position throughout and which advances in steps of one line at a time.

creeping mine — (*) In naval mine warfare, a buoyant mine held below the surface by a
weight, usually in the form of a chain, which is free to creep along the seabed under the
influence of stream or current.

crest — (*) A terrain feature of such altitude that it restricts fire or observation in an area
beyond, resulting in dead space, or limiting the minimum elevation, or both.

crested — A report that indicates that engagement of a target or observation of an area is
not possible because of an obstacle or intervening crest.

crisis — An incident or situation involving a threat to a nation, its territories, citizens,
military forces, possessions, or vital interests that develops rapidly and creates a
condition of such diplomatic, economic, political, or military importance that
commitment of military forces and resources is contemplated to achieve national
objectives. (JP 3-0)

crisis action planning — One of the two types of joint operation planning. The Joint
Operation Planning and Execution System process involving the time-sensitive
development of joint operation plans and operation orders for the deployment,
employment, and sustainment of assigned and allocated forces and resources in
response to an imminent crisis. Crisis action planning is based on the actual
circumstances that exist at the time planning occurs. Also called CAP. See also
contingency planning; joint operation planning; Joint Operation Planning and
Execution System. (JP 5-0)

crisis management — Measures to identify, acquire, and plan the use of resources needed
to anticipate, prevent, and/or resolve a threat or an act of terrorism. It is predominantly
a law enforcement response, normally executed under federal law. Also called CrM.
(JP 3-28)

critical asset — A specific entity that is of such extraordinary importance that its
incapacitation or destruction would have a very serious, debilitating effect on the ability
of a nation to continue to function effectively. (JP 3-07.2)

critical asset list — A prioritized list of assets, normally identified by phase of the operation
and approved by the joint force commander, that should be defended against air and
missile threats. Also called the CAL. (JP 3-01)

critical capability — A means that is considered a crucial enabler for a center of gravity to
function as such and is essential to the accomplishment of the specified or assumed
objective(s). (JP 5-0)

critical information — Specific facts about friendly intentions, capabilities, and activities
vitally needed by adversaries for them to plan and act effectively so as to guarantee
failure or unacceptable consequences for friendly mission accomplishment.

critical infrastructure protection — Actions taken to prevent, remediate, or mitigate the
risks resulting from vulnerabilities of critical infrastructure assets. Depending on the
risk, these actions could include: changes in tactics, techniques, or procedures; adding
redundancy; selection of another asset; isolation or hardening; guarding, etc. Also
called CIP. See also defense critical infrastructure; national critical infrastructure
and key assets. (JP 3-28)

critical intelligence — Intelligence that is crucial and requires the immediate attention of
the commander. It is required to enable the commander to make decisions that will
provide a timely and appropriate response to actions by the potential or actual enemy.
It includes but is not limited to the following: a. strong indications of the imminent
outbreak of hostilities of any type (warning of attack); b. aggression of any nature
against a friendly country; c. indications or use of chemical, biological, radiological,
nuclear, or high-yield explosives weapons; and d. significant events within adversary
countries that may lead to modifications of nuclear strike plans. (JP 2-0)

critical item — An essential item which is in short supply or expected to be in short supply
for an extended period. See also critical supplies and materiel; regulated item.

critical item list — Prioritized list, compiled from a subordinate commander’s composite
critical item lists, identifying supply items and weapon systems that assist Service and
Defense Logistics Agency’s selection of supply items and systems for production surge
planning. Also may be used in operational situations by the combatant commander
and/or subordinate joint force commander (within combatant commander directives) to
cross-level critical supply items between Service components. Also called CIL. See
also critical item. (JP 4-07)

criticality assessment — An assessment that identifies key assets and infrastructure that
support Department of Defense missions, units, or activities and are deemed mission
critical by military commanders or civilian agency managers. It addresses the impact
of temporary or permanent loss of key assets or infrastructures to the installation or a
unit’s ability to perform its mission. It examines costs of recovery and reconstitution
including time, dollars, capability, and infrastructure support. (JP 3-07.2)

critical joint duty assignment billet — A joint duty assignment position for which,
considering the duties and responsibilities of the position, it is highly important that the
assigned officer be particularly trained in, and oriented toward, joint matters. Critical
billets are selected by heads of joint organizations, approved by the Secretary of
Defense and documented in the Joint Duty Assignment List.

critical mass — The minimum amount of fissionable material capable of supporting a chain
reaction under precisely specified conditions.

critical node — An element, position, or command and control entity whose disruption or
destruction immediately degrades the ability of a force to command, control, or
effectively conduct combat operations. Also called target critical damage point.

critical occupational specialty — A military occupational specialty selected from among
the combat arms in the Army or equivalent military specialties in the Navy, Air Force,
or Marine Corps. Equivalent military specialties are those engaged in operational art in
order to attain strategic goals in an operational area through the design, organization,
and conduct of campaigns and major operations. Critical occupational specialties are
designated by the Secretary of Defense. Also called COS.

critical point — 1. A key geographical point or position important to the success of an
operation. 2. In point of time, a crisis or a turning point in an operation. 3. A selected
point along a line of march used for reference in giving instructions. 4. A point where
there is a change of direction or change in slope in a ridge or stream. 5. Any point
along a route of march where interference with a troop movement may occur.

critical requirement — An essential condition, resource, and means for a critical capability
to be fully operational. (JP 5-0)

critical safety item — A part, assembly, installation, or production system with one or more
essential characteristics that, if not conforming to the design data or quality
requirements, would result in an unsafe condition that could cause loss or serious
damage to the end item or major components, loss of control, or serious injury to
personnel. Also called CSI.

critical speed — (*) A speed or range of speeds which a ship cannot sustain due to
vibration or other similar phenomena.

critical supplies and materiel — (*) Those supplies vital to the support of operations,
which owing to various causes are in short supply or are expected to be in short supply.
See also critical item; regulated item. (JP 4-0)

critical sustainability item — Any item described at National Stock Number level of
detail, by federal supply class, as part of the logistic factors file, that significantly affect
the commander’s ability to execute an operation plan. Also called CSI.

critical vulnerability — An aspect of a critical requirement which is deficient or vulnerable
to direct or indirect attack that will create decisive or significant effects. (JP 5-0)

critic report — See critical intelligence.

crossing area — (*) 1. A number of adjacent crossing sites under the control of one
commander. 2. (DOD only) A controlled access area for a river crossing operation
used to decrease traffic congestion at the river. It is normally a brigade-sized area
defined by lateral boundaries and release lines 3 to 4 kilometers (based on mission,
enemy, terrain and weather, troops and support available-time available) from each side
of the river.

cross-leveling — The authority and ability to shift materiel inventory from one owner to
meet the requirement of another. At the theater strategic level and operational level, it
is the process of diverting en route or in-theater materiel from one military element to
meet the higher priority of another within the combatant commander’s directive
authority for logistics. Cross-leveling plans must include specific reimbursement
procedures. (JP 4-07)

cross-loading (personnel) — The distribution of leaders, key weapons, personnel, and key
equipment among the aircraft, vessels, or vehicles of a formation to preclude the total
loss of command and control or unit effectiveness if an aircraft, vessel, or vehicle is
lost. It is also an important factor in aiding rapid assembly of units at the drop zone or
landing zone. See also loading.

cross-servicing — A subset of common-user logistics in which a function is performed by
one Military Service in support of another Military Service and for which
reimbursement is required from the Service receiving support. See also acquisition
and cross-servicing agreement; common-user logistics; servicing. (JP 4-07)

cross-targeting (nuclear) — The layering of weapons from different delivery platforms to
increase the probability of target damage or destruction.

cross tell — (*) The transfer of information between facilities at the same operational level.
See also track telling.

cruise missile — Guided missile, the major portion of whose flight path to its target is
conducted at approximately constant velocity; depends on the dynamic reaction of air
for lift and upon propulsion forces to balance drag.

cruising altitude — (*) A level determined by vertical measurement from mean sea level,
maintained during a flight or portion thereof.

cruising level — (*) A level maintained during a significant portion of a flight. See also

crush depth — See collapse depth.

cryogenic liquid — Liquefied gas at very low temperature, such as liquid oxygen, nitrogen,
or argon.

cryptanalysis — The steps and operations performed in converting encrypted messages into
plain text without initial knowledge of the key employed in the encryption.

cryptochannel — 1. A complete system of crypto-communications between two or more
holders. 2. The basic unit for naval cryptographic communication. It includes: a. the
cryptographic aids prescribed; b. the holders thereof; c. the indicators or other means
of identification; d. the area or areas in which effective; e. the special purpose, if any,
for which provided; and f. pertinent notes as to distribution, usage, etc. A
cryptochannel is analogous to a radio circuit.

cryptographic information — All information significantly descriptive of cryptographic
techniques and processes or of cryptographic systems and equipment (or their functions
and capabilities) and all cryptomaterial.

cryptologic — Of or pertaining to cryptology.

cryptology — The science that deals with hidden, disguised, or encrypted communications.
It includes communications security and communications intelligence.

cryptomaterial — All material including documents, devices, equipment, and apparatus
essential to the encryption, decryption, or authentication of telecommunications. When
classified, it is designated CRYPTO and subject to special safeguards.

cryptopart — (*) A division of a message as prescribed for security reasons. The
operating instructions for certain cryptosystems prescribe the number of groups which
may be encrypted in the systems, using a single message indicator. Cryptoparts are
identified in plain language. They are not to be confused with message parts.

cryptosecurity — The component of communications security that results from the
provision of technically sound cryptosystems and their proper use. See also
communications security. (JP 6-0)

cryptosystem — The associated items of cryptomaterial that are used as a unit and provide
a single means of encryption and decryption. See also cipher; code; decrypt;

culminating point — The point at which a force no longer has the capability to continue its
form of operations, offense or defense. a. In the offense, the point at which effectively
continuing the attack is no longer possible and the force must consider reverting to a
defensive posture or attempting an operational pause. b. In the defense, the point at
which effective counteroffensive action is no longer possible. (JP 5-0)

cultivation — A deliberate and calculated association with a person for the purpose of
recruitment, obtaining information, or gaining control for these or other purposes.

culture — (*) A feature of the terrain that has been constructed by man. Included are such
items as roads, buildings, and canals; boundary lines; and, in a broad sense, all names
and legends on a map.

curb weight — Weight of a ground vehicle including fuel, lubricants, coolant, and
on-vehicle materiel, excluding cargo and operating personnel.

current — A body of water moving in a certain direction and caused by wind and density
differences in water. The effects of a current are modified by water depth, underwater
topography, basin shape, land masses, and deflection from the earth’s rotation.
(JP 4-01.6)

current force — The force that exists today. The current force represents actual force
structure and/or manning available to meet present contingencies. It is the basis for
operations and contingency plans and orders. See also force; Intermediate Force
Planning Level; Programmed Forces.

current intelligence — One of two categories of descriptive intelligence that is concerned
with describing the existing situation. (JP 2-0)

current, offshore — Deep water movements caused by tides or seasonal changes in ocean
water level. (JP 4-01.6)

current, rip — A water movement that flows from the beach through the surf zone in
swiftly moving narrow channels. See also surf zone. (JP 4-01.6)

curve of pursuit — (*) The curved path described by a fighter plane making an attack on a
moving target while holding the proper aiming allowance.

cusps — Ridges of beach material extending seaward from the beach face with intervening
troughs. (JP 4-01.6)

custodian of postal effects — Members of the US Armed Forces or Department of Defense
civilian employees accountable for administration of the postal effects entrusted to
them by the United States Postal Service. Civilian custodians of postal effects are
supervised by the members of the US Armed Forces. Also called COPE.

custody — 1. The responsibility for the control of, transfer and movement of, and access to,
weapons and components. Custody also includes the maintenance of accountability for
weapons and components. 2. Temporary restraint of a person.

customer ship — (*) The ship in a replenishment unit that receives the transferred
personnel and/or supplies.

customer wait time — The total elapsed time between issuance of a customer order and
satisfaction of that order. Also called CWT. (JP 4-09)

Customs Over-The-Horizon Enforcement Network — United States Customs Service
long-range voice communications system. Also called COTHEN. (JP 3-07.4)

cut-off — (*) The deliberate shutting off of a reaction engine.
cutoff attack — An attack that provides a direct vector from the interceptor’s position to an
intercept point with the target track.

cut-off velocity — (*) The velocity attained by a missile at the point of cut-off.

cutout — An intermediary or device used to obviate direct contact between members of a
clandestine organization.

cutter — 1. In naval mine warfare, a device fitted to a sweep wire to cut or part the
moorings of mines or obstructors; it may also be fitted in the mooring of a mine or
obstructor to part a sweep. 2. Coast Guard watercraft 65 feet long or larger. See also
mine warfare; watercraft. (JP 3-33)

cutting charge — (*) A charge which produces a cutting effect in line with its plane of

cyber counterintelligence — Measures to identify, penetrate, or neutralize foreign
operations that use cyber means as the primary tradecraft methodology, as well as
foreign intelligence service collection efforts that use traditional methods to gauge
cyber capabilities and intentions. See also counterintelligence. (JP 2-01.2)

cyberspace — A global domain within the information environment consisting of the
interdependent network of information technology infrastructures, including the
Internet, telecommunications networks, computer systems, and embedded processors
and controllers. (CJCS CM-0363-08)

cyberspace operations — The employment of cyber capabilities where the primary
purpose is to achieve military objectives or effects in or through cyberspace. Such
operations include computer network operations and activities to operate and defend
the Global Information Grid. (CJCS CM-0527-08)



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