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Military Terms and Definitions

land control operations — The employment of ground forces, supported by naval and air
forces (as appropriate) to achieve military objectives in vital land areas. Such
operations include destruction of opposing ground forces, securing key terrain,
protection of vital land lines of communications, and establishment of local military
superiority in areas of land operations. See also sea control operations.

land forces — Personnel, weapon systems, vehicles, and support elements operating on
land to accomplish assigned missions and tasks.

landing aid — (*) Any illuminating light, radio beacon, radar device, communicating
device, or any system of such devices for aiding aircraft in an approach and landing.
(JP 3-04)

landing area — 1. That part of the operational area within which are conducted the landing
operations of an amphibious force. It includes the beach, the approaches to the beach,
the transport areas, the fire support areas, the airspace occupied by close supporting
aircraft, and the land included in the advance inland to the initial objective. 2.
(Airborne) The general area used for landing troops and materiel either by airdrop or air
landing. This area includes one or more drop zones or landing strips. 3. Any specially
prepared or selected surface of land, water, or deck designated or used for takeoff and
landing of aircraft. See also airfield; amphibious force; landing beach; landing
force. (JP 3-02)

landing attack — An attack against enemy defenses by troops landed from ships, aircraft,
boats, or amphibious vehicles. See also assault.

landing beach — That portion of a shoreline usually required for the landing of a battalion
landing team. However, it may also be that portion of a shoreline constituting a tactical
locality (such as the shore of a bay) over which a force larger or smaller than a battalion
landing team may be landed.

landing craft — (*) A craft employed in amphibious operations, specifically designed for
carrying troops and their equipment and for beaching, unloading, and retracting. It is
also used for resupply operations. (JP 4-01.6)

landing craft and amphibious vehicle assignment table — A table showing the
assignment of personnel and materiel to each landing craft and amphibious vehicle and
the assignment of the landing craft and amphibious vehicles to waves for the
ship-to-shore movement.

landing craft availability table — A tabulation of the type and number of landing craft that
will be available from each ship of the transport group. The table is the basis for the
assignment of landing craft to the boat groups for the ship-to-shore movement.

landing diagram — (*) A graphic means of illustrating the plan for the ship-to-shore

landing force — A Marine Corps or Army task organization formed to conduct amphibious
operations. The landing force, together with the amphibious task force and other
forces, constitute the amphibious force. Also called LF. See also amphibious force;
amphibious operation; amphibious task force; task organization. (JP 3-02)

landing force supplies — Those supplies remaining in assault shipping after initial combat
supplies and floating dumps have been unloaded. They are landed selectively in
accordance with the requirements of the landing force until the situation ashore permits
the inception of general unloading. (JP 3-02.2)

landing force support party — A temporary landing force organization composed of Navy
and landing force elements, that facilitates the ship-to-shore movement and provides
initial combat support and combat service support to the landing force. The landing
force support party is brought into existence by a formal activation order issued by the
commander, landing force. Also called LFSP. See also combat service support;
combat support; landing force; ship-to-shore movement. (JP 3-02)

landing group — In amphibious operations, a subordinate task organization of the landing
force capable of conducting landing operations, under a single tactical command,
against a position or group of positions. (JP 3-02)

landing group commander — In amphibious operations, the officer designated by the
commander, landing force as the single tactical commander of a subordinate task
organization capable of conducting landing operations against a position or group of
positions. See also amphibious operation; commander, landing force. (JP 3-02)

landing mat — (*) A prefabricated, portable mat so designed that any number of planks
(sections) may be rapidly fastened together to form surfacing for emergency runways,
landing beaches, etc.

landing plan — 1. In amphibious operations, a collective term referring to all individually
prepared naval and landing force documents that, taken together, present in detail all
instructions for execution of the ship-to-shore movement. 2. In airlift operations, the
sequence, method of delivery, and place of arrival of troops and materiel. (JP 3-17)

landing point — (*) A point within a landing site where one helicopter or vertical takeoff
and landing aircraft can land. See also airfield.

landing roll — (*) The movement of an aircraft from touchdown through deceleration to
taxi speed or full stop.

landing schedule — In an amphibious operation, a schedule that shows the beach, hour,
and priorities of landing of assault units, and which coordinates the movements of
landing craft from the transports to the beach in order to execute the scheme of
maneuver ashore.

landing sequence table — A document that incorporates the detailed plans for
ship-to-shore movement of nonscheduled units. (JP 3-02.2)

landing ship — (*) An assault ship which is designed for long sea voyages and for rapid
unloading over and on to a beach.

landing ship dock — (*) A ship designed to transport and launch loaded amphibious craft
and/or amphibian vehicles with their crews and embarked personnel and/or equipment
and to render limited docking and repair services to small ships and craft. Also called
LSD. (JP 3-02.2)

landing signalman enlisted — Enlisted man responsible for ensuring that helicopters, on
signal, are safely started, engaged, launched, recovered, and shut down. Also called
LSE. (JP 3-04)

landing signals officer — Officer responsible for the visual control of aircraft in the
terminal phase of the approach immediately prior to landing. Also called LSO. See
also terminal phase. (JP 3-04)

landing site — (*) 1. A site within a landing zone containing one or more landing points.
See also airfield. 2. In amphibious operations, a continuous segment of coastline over
which troops, equipment and supplies can be landed by surface means. (JP 3-02)

landing threshold — The beginning of that portion of a runway usable for landing.
landing zone — (*) Any specified zone used for the landing of aircraft. Also called LZ.
See also airfield. (JP 3-17)

landing zone control — See pathfinder drop zone control.

landing zone control party — (*) Personnel specially trained and equipped to establish and
operate communications devices from the ground for traffic control of
aircraft/helicopters for a specific landing zone.

landmark — (*) A feature, either natural or artificial, that can be accurately determined on
the ground from a grid reference.
land mine warfare — See mine warfare.

land search — The search of terrain by Earth-bound personnel.

lane marker — (*) In land mine warfare, sign used to mark a minefield lane. Lane
markers, at the entrance to and exit from the lane, may be referenced to a landmark or
intermediate marker. See also marker; minefield lane.

lap — (*) In naval mine warfare, that section or strip of an area assigned to a single
sweeper or formation of sweepers for a run through the area.

lap course — (*) In naval mine warfare, the true course desired to be made good during a
run along a lap.

lap track — (*) In naval mine warfare, the center line of a lap; ideally, the track to be
followed by the sweep or detecting gear.

lap turn — (*) In naval mine warfare, the maneuver a minesweeper carries out during the
period between the completion of one run and the commencement of the run
immediately following.

lap width — (*) In naval mine warfare, the swept path of the ship or formation divided by
the percentage coverage being swept to.

large-lot storage — A quantity of material that will require four or more pallet columns
stored to maximum height. Usually accepted as stock stored in carload or greater
quantities. See also storage.

large-scale map — A map having a scale of 1:75,000 or larger. See also map.

large spread — A report by an observer or a spotter to the ship to indicate that the distance
between the bursts of a salvo is excessive.

laser — Any device that can produce or amplify optical radiation primarily by the process
of controlled stimulated emission. A laser may emit electromagnetic radiation from the
ultraviolet portion of the spectrum through the infrared portion. Also, an acronym for
“light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation.” (JP 3-09.1)

laser footprint — The projection of the laser beam and buffer zone on the ground or target
area. The laser footprint may be part of the laser surface danger zone if that footprint
lies within the nominal visual hazard distance of the laser. See also buffer zone; laser.
(JP 3-09.1)

laser guidance unit — A device which incorporates a laser seeker to provide guidance
commands to the control system of a missile, projectile or bomb.

laser guided weapon — (*) A weapon which uses a seeker to detect laser energy reflected
from a laser marked/designated target and through signal processing provides guidance
commands to a control system which guides the weapon to the point from which the
laser energy is being reflected. Also called LGW. See also laser. (JP 3-09.1)

laser illuminator — A device for enhancing the illumination in a zone of action by
irradiating with a laser beam.

laser intelligence — Technical and geo-location intelligence derived from laser systems; a
subcategory of electro-optical intelligence. Also called LASINT. See also
electro-optical intelligence; intelligence. (JP 2-0)

laser linescan system — (*) An active airborne imagery recording system which uses a
laser as the primary source of illumination to scan the ground beneath the flight path,
adding successive across-track lines to the record as the vehicle advances. See also
infrared linescan system.

laser pulse duration — (*) The time during which the laser output pulse power remains
continuously above half its maximum value.

laser rangefinder — (*) A device which uses laser energy for determining the distance
from the device to a place or object. (JP 3-09.1)

laser seeker — (*) A device based on a direction sensitive receiver which detects the
energy reflected from a laser designated target and defines the direction of the target
relative to the receiver. See also laser guided weapon. (JP 3-09.1)

laser spot — The area on a surface illuminated by a laser. See also laser; spot. (JP 3-09.1)

laser spot tracker — A device that locks on to the reflected energy from a laser-marked or
designated target and defines the direction of the target relative to itself. Also called

laser target designating system — (*) A system which is used to direct (aim or point)
laser energy at a target. The system consists of the laser designator or laser target
marker with its display and control components necessary to acquire the target and
direct the beam of laser energy thereon.

laser target designator — A device that emits a beam of laser energy which is used to
mark a specific place or object. Also called LTD. See also laser; target. (JP 3-09.1)

laser-target/gun-target angle — The angle between the laser-to-target line and the laser
guided weapon/gun-target line at the point where they cross the target. See also laser;
laser guided weapon; target. (JP 3-09.1)

laser-target line — An imaginary straight line from the laser designator to the target with
respect to magnetic north. See also laser; laser target designator; target. (JP 3-09.1)

laser target marker — See laser designator.

laser target marking system — See laser target designating system.

lashing — (*) See tie down. (DOD only) See restraint of loads.

lashing point — See tie down point.

late — (*) In artillery and naval gunfire support, a report made to the observer or spotter,
whenever there is a delay in reporting “shot” by coupling a time in seconds with the

lateral gain — (*) The amount of new ground covered laterally by successive photographic
runs over an area.

lateral route — (*) A route generally parallel to the forward edge of the battle area, which
crosses, or feeds into, axial routes. See also route.

lateral spread — A technique used to place the mean point of impact of two or more units
100 meters apart on a line perpendicular to the gun-target line.

lateral tell — See track telling.

latest arrival date — A day, relative to C-Day, that is specified by the supported
combatant commander as the latest date when a unit, a resupply shipment, or
replacement personnel can arrive at the port of debarkation and support the concept of
operations. Used with the earliest arrival date, it defines a delivery window for
transportation planning. Also called LAD.

late time — See span of detonation (atomic demolition munition employment), Part 3.

lattice — (*) A network of intersecting positional lines printed on a map or chart from
which a fix may be obtained.

launch pad — (*) A concrete or other hard surface area on which a missile launcher is

launch time — The time at which an aircraft or missile is scheduled to be airborne. See
also airborne order.

launch under attack — Execution by the President of Single Integrated Operational Plan
forces subsequent to tactical warning of strategic nuclear attack against the United
States and prior to first impact. Also called LUA.

launch window — The earliest and latest time a rocket may launch.

laundering — In counterdrug operations, the process of transforming drug money into a
more manageable form while concealing its illicit origin. Foreign bank accounts
and dummy corporations are used as shelters. See also counterdrug operations.
(JP 3-07.4)

law enforcement agency — Any of a number of agencies (outside the Department of
Defense) chartered and empowered to enforce US laws in the following jurisdictions:
The United States, a state (or political subdivision) of the United States, a territory (or
political subdivision) of the United States, a federally recognized Native American tribe
or Alaskan Native Village, or within the borders of a host nation. Also called LEA.
(JP 3-28)

law of armed conflict — See law of war.
law of war — That part of international law that regulates the conduct of armed hostilities.
Also called the law of armed conflict. See also rules of engagement.

lay — 1. Direct or adjust the aim of a weapon. 2. Setting of a weapon for a given range, a
given direction, or both. 3. To drop one or more aerial bombs or aerial mines onto the
surface from an aircraft. 4. To spread a smoke screen on the ground from an aircraft.
5. To calculate or project a course. 6. To lay on: a. to execute a bomber strike; b. to
set up a mission.

laydown bombing — (*) A very low level bombing technique wherein delay fuzes and/or
devices are used to allow the attacker to escape the effects of the bomb.

layer depth — The depth from the surface of the sea to the point above the first major
negative thermocline at which sound velocity is maximum.

lay leader — A volunteer appointed by the commanding officer and supervised and trained
by the command chaplain to serve for a period of time to meet the needs of a particular
religious faith group when their military chaplains are not available. The lay leader
may conduct services, but may not exercise any other activities usually reserved for the
ordained clergy. See also command chaplain; combatant command chaplain;
religious support; religious support plan; religious support team. (JP 1-05)

lay reference number — (*) In naval mine warfare, a number allocated to an individual
mine by the minefield planning authority to provide a simple means of referring to it.

lead agency — Designated among US Government agencies to coordinate the interagency
oversight of the day-to-day conduct of an ongoing operation. The lead agency is to
chair the interagency working group established to coordinate policy related to a
particular operation. The lead agency determines the agenda, ensures cohesion among
the agencies, and is responsible for implementing decisions. (JP 3-08)

lead agent — 1. An individual Service, combatant command, or Joint Staff directorate
assigned to develop and maintain a joint publication. 2. In medical materiel
management, the designated unit or organization to coordinate or execute day-to-day
conduct of an ongoing operation or function. Also called LA. (JP 4-02)

lead aircraft — 1. The airborne aircraft designated to exercise command of other aircraft
within the flight. 2. An aircraft in the van of two or more aircraft.

lead federal agency — The federal agency that leads and coordinates the overall federal
response to an emergency. Designation and responsibilities of a lead federal agency
vary according to the type of emergency and the agency’s statutory authority. Also
called LFA. (JP 3-41)

lead nation — One nation assumes the responsibility for procuring and providing a broad
spectrum of logistic support for all or a part of the multinational force and/or
headquarters. Compensation and/or reimbursement will then be subject to agreements
between the parties involved. The lead nation may also assume the responsibility to
coordinate logistics of the other nations within its functional and regional area of
responsibility. See also logistic support; multinational force. (JP 4-0)

lead Service or agency for common-user logistics — A Service component or Department
of Defense agency that is responsible for execution of common-user item or service
support in a specific combatant command or multinational operation as defined in the
combatant or subordinate joint force commander’s operation plan, operation order,
and/or directives. See also common-user logistics. (JP 4-07)

leapfrog — (*) Form of movement in which like supporting elements are moved
successively through or by one another along the axis of movement of supported

leaver — (*) A merchant ship which breaks off from a convoy to proceed to a different
destination and becomes independent. Also called convoy leaver. See also leaver
convoy; leaver section.

leaver convoy — (*) A convoy which has broken off from the main convoy and is
proceeding to a different destination. See also leaver; leaver section.

leaver section — (*) A group of ships forming part of the main convoy which will
subsequently break off to become leavers or a leaver convoy. See also leaver; leaver

left (or right) — (*) 1. Terms used to establish the relative position of a body of troops.
The person using the terms “left” or “right” is assumed to be facing in the direction of
the enemy regardless of whether the troops are advancing towards or withdrawing from
the enemy. 2. Correction used in adjusting fire to indicate that a lateral shift of the
mean point of impact perpendicular to the reference line or spotting line is desired.
As Amended Through 17 March 2009
JP 1-02 313

left (right) bank — That bank of a stream or river on the left (right) of the observer when
facing in the direction of flow or downstream.

letter of assist — A contractual document issued by the United Nations to a government
authorizing it to provide goods or services to a peacekeeping operation; the United
Nations agrees either to purchase the goods or services or authorizes the government to
supply them subject to reimbursement by the United Nations. A letter of assist
typically details specifically what is to be provided by the contributing government and
establishes a funding limit that cannot be exceeded. Also called LOA. See also
peacekeeping. (JP 1-06)

letter of authorization — A document issued by the procuring contracting officer or
designee that authorizes contractor personnel authorized to accompany the force to
travel to, from, and within the operational area; and, outlines government furnished
support authorizations within the operational area. Also called LOA. (JP 4-10)

letter of offer and acceptance — Standard Department of Defense form on which the US
Government documents its offer to transfer to a foreign government or international
organization US defense articles and services via foreign military sales pursuant to the
Arms Export Control Act. Also called LOA. See also foreign military sales.
(JP 4-08)

level of detail — Within the current joint planning and execution system, movement
characteristics for both personnel and cargo are described at six distinct levels of detail.
Levels I, V, and VI describe personnel and Levels I through IV and VI for cargo.
Levels I through IV are coded and visible in the Joint Operation Planning and
Execution System automated data processing. Levels V and VI are used by Joint
Operation Planning and Execution System automated data processing feeder systems.
a. level I - personnel: expressed as total number of passengers by unit line number.
Cargo: expressed in total short tons, total measurement tons, total square feet, and total
thousands of barrels by unit line number. Petroleum, oils, and lubricants is expressed
by thousands of barrels by unit line number. b. level II - cargo: expressed by short tons
and measurement tons of bulk, oversize, outsize, and non-air transportable cargo by
unit line number. Also square feet for vehicles and non self-deployable aircraft and
boats by unit line number. c. level III - cargo: detail by cargo category code expressed
as short tons and measurement tons as well as square feet associated to that cargo
category code for an individual unit line number. d. level IV - cargo: detail for
individual dimensional data expressed in length, width, and height in number of inches,
and weight/volume in short tons/measurement tons, along with a cargo description.
Each cargo item is associated with a cargo category code and a unit line number). e.
level V - personnel: any general summarization/aggregation of level VI detail in
distribution and deployment. f. level VI - personnel: detail expressed by name,
Service, military occupational specialty and unique identification number. Cargo:
detail expressed by association to a transportation control number or single tracking
number or item of equipment to include federal stock number/national stock number
and/or requisition number. Nested cargo, cargo that is contained within another
equipment item, may similarly be identified. Also called JOPES level of detail.
(CJCSM 3122.01A)

level-of-effort munitions — (*) In stockpile planning, munitions stocked on the basis of
expected daily expenditure rate, the number of combat days, and the attrition rate
assumed, to counter targets the number of which is unknown. See also threat-oriented

level of effort-oriented items — Items for which requirements computations are based on
such factors as equipment and personnel density and time and rate of use. See also
combination mission/level of effort-oriented items; mission-oriented items.

leverage — In the context of joint operation planning, a relative advantage in combat power
and/or other circumstances against the adversary across one or more domains (air, land,
sea, and space) and/or the information environment sufficient to exploit that advantage.
Leverage is an element of operational design. See also operational art; operational
design. (JP 5-0)

L-hour — See times.

liaison — That contact or intercommunication maintained between elements of military
forces or other agencies to ensure mutual understanding and unity of purpose and
action. (JP 3-08)

liberated territory — (*) Any area, domestic, neutral, or friendly, which, having been
occupied by an enemy, is retaken by friendly forces.

licensed production — A direct commercial arrangement between a US company and a
foreign government, international organization, or foreign company, providing for the
transfer of production information which enables the foreign government, international
organization, or commercial producer to manufacture, in whole or in part, an item of
US defense equipment. A typical license production arrangement would include the
functions of production engineering, controlling, quality assurance and determining of
resource requirements. It may or may not include design engineering information and
critical materials production and design information. A licensed production
arrangement is accomplished under the provisions of a manufacturing license
agreement per the US International Traffic in Arms Regulation.

life cycle — The total phases through which an item passes from the time it is initially
developed until the time it is either consumed in use or disposed of as being excess to
all known materiel requirements.

lifeguard submarine — (*) A submarine employed for rescue in an area which cannot be
adequately covered by air or surface rescue facilities because of enemy opposition,
distance from friendly bases, or other reasons. It is stationed near the objective and
sometimes along the route to be flown by the strike aircraft.

life support equipment — Equipment designed to sustain aircrew members and passengers
throughout the flight environment, optimizing their mission effectiveness and affording
a means of safe and reliable escape, descent, survival, and recovery in emergency

light artillery — See field artillery.

light damage — See nuclear damage, Part 1.

lightening — (*) The operation (normally carried out at anchor) of transferring crude oil
cargo from a large tanker to a smaller tanker, so reducing the draft of the larger tanker
to enable it to enter port.

lighterage — The process in which small craft are used to transport cargo or personnel from
ship to shore. Lighterage may be performed using amphibians, landing craft, discharge
lighters, causeways, and barges. (JP 4-01.6)

light filter — (*) An optical element such as a sheet of glass, gelatine, or plastic dyed in a
specific manner to absorb selectively light of certain colors.

light line — (*) A designated line forward of which vehicles are required to use black-out
lights at night.

lightweight amphibious container handler — A United States Marine Corps piece of
equipment usually maneuvered by a bulldozer and used to retrieve 20-foot equivalent
containers from landing craft in the surf and place them on flatbed truck trailers. See
also container. (JP 4-01.6)

limited production-type item — An item under development, commercially available or
available from other Government agencies, for which an urgent operational
requirement exists and for which no other existing item is suitable. Such an item
appears to fulfill an approved materiel requirement or other Military Departmentapproved
requirements and to be promising enough operationally to warrant initiating
procurement and/or production for service issue prior to completion of development
and/or test or adoption as a standard item.

limited standard item — An item of supply determined by standardization action as
authorized for procurement only to support in-service military materiel requirements.

limited war — Armed conflict short of general war, exclusive of incidents, involving the
overt engagement of the military forces of two or more nations.

limiting factor — A factor or condition that, either temporarily or permanently, impedes
mission accomplishment. Illustrative examples are transportation network deficiencies,
lack of in-place facilities, malpositioned forces or materiel, extreme climatic conditions,
distance, transit or overflight rights, political conditions, etc.

limit of fire — (*) 1. The boundary marking off the area on which gunfire can be
delivered. 2. Safe angular limits for firing at aerial targets.

linear scale — See graphic scale; scale.

line of communications — A route, either land, water, and/or air, that connects an
operating military force with a base of operations and along which supplies and
military forces move. Also called LOC. See also base of operations; route. (JP 4-0)

line of demarcation — A line defining the boundary of a buffer zone or area of limitation.
A line of demarcation may also be used to define the forward limits of disputing or
belligerent forces after each phase of disengagement or withdrawal has been
completed. See also area of limitation; buffer zone; disengagement; peace
operations. (JP 3-07.3)

line of departure — (*) 1. In land warfare, a line designated to coordinate the departure of
attack elements. 2. In amphibious warfare, a suitably marked offshore coordinating
line to assist assault craft to land on designated beaches at scheduled times. Also called

line of operations — 1. A logical line that connects actions on nodes and/or decisive points
related in time and purpose with an objective(s). 2. A physical line that defines the
interior or exterior orientation of the force in relation to the enemy or that connects
actions on nodes and/or decisive points related in time and space to an objective(s).
Also called LOO. (JP 3-0)

line overlap — See overlap, Part 1.

line-route map — A map or overlay for signal communications operations that shows the
actual routes and types of construction of wire circuits in the field. It also gives the
locations of switchboards and telegraph stations. See also map.

line search — (*) Reconnaissance along a specific line of communications, such as a road,
railway or waterway, to detect fleeting targets and activities in general.

link — (*) 1. (DOD only) A behavioral, physical, or functional relationship between nodes.
2. In communications, a general term used to indicate the existence of communications
facilities between two points. 3. A maritime route, other than a coastal or transit route,
which links any two or more routes. See also node. (JP 3-0)

link encryption — The application of online crypto-operation to a link of a
communications system so that all information passing over the link is encrypted in its

link-lift vehicle — The conveyance, together with its operating personnel, used to satisfy a
movement requirement between nodes.

link-route segments — Route segments that connect nodes wherein link-lift vehicles
perform the movement function.

liquid explosive — (*) Explosive which is fluid at normal temperatures.

liquid propellant — Any liquid combustible fed to the combustion chamber of a rocket

listening watch — A continuous receiver watch established for the reception of traffic
addressed to, or of interest to, the unit maintaining the watch, with complete log

litter — A basket or frame utilized for the transport of injured persons.
litter patient — A patient requiring litter accommodations while in transit.

littoral — The littoral comprises two segments of battlespace: 1. Seaward: the area from
the open ocean to the shore, which must be controlled to support operations ashore. 2.
Landward: the area inland from the shore that can be supported and defended directly
from the sea. (JP 3-32)

load — (*) The total weight of passengers and/or freight carried on board a ship, aircraft,
train, road vehicle, or other means of conveyance. See also airlift capability; airlift
requirement; allowable load.

load control group — (*) Personnel who are concerned with organization and control of
loading within the pick-up zone.

loading — (*) The process of putting personnel, materiel, supplies and other freight on
board ships, aircraft, trains, road vehicles, or other means of conveyance. See also

loading chart (aircraft) — Any one of a series of charts carried in an aircraft that shows
the proper location for loads to be transported and that pertains to check-lists, balance
records, and clearances for weight and balance.

loading plan — (*) All of the individually prepared documents which, taken together,
present in detail all instructions for the arrangement of personnel, and the loading of
equipment for one or more units or other special grouping of personnel or material
moving by highway, water, rail, or air transportation. See also ocean manifest.

loading point — (*) A point where one aircraft can be loaded or unloaded.

loading site — (*) An area containing a number of loading points.

loading time — In airlift operations, a specified time, established jointly by the airlift and
airborne commanders concerned, when aircraft and loads are available and loading is to
begin. (JP 3-17)

loadmaster — An Air Force technician qualified to plan loads, to operate auxiliary
materials handling equipment, and to supervise loading and unloading of aircraft.
(JP 3-17)

load signal — In personnel recovery, a visual signal displayed in a covert manner to
indicate the presence of an individual or object at a given location. See also evasion;
recovery operations; signal. (JP 3-50)

load spreader — (*) Material used to distribute the weight of a load over a given area to
avoid exceeding designed stress.

localizer — (*) A directional radio beacon which provides to an aircraft an indication of its
lateral position relative to a predetermined final approach course. See also instrument
landing system.

local mean time — (*) The time interval elapsed since the mean sun’s transit of the
observer’s anti-meridian.

local procurement — The process of obtaining personnel, services, supplies, and
equipment from local or indigenous sources.

local purchase — The function of acquiring a decentralized item of supply from sources
outside the Department of Defense.

lock on — Signifies that a tracking or target-seeking system is continuously and
automatically tracking a target in one or more coordinates (e.g., range, bearing,

lodgment — A designated area in a hostile or potentially hostile operational area that, when
seized and held, makes the continuous landing of troops and materiel possible and
provides maneuver space for subsequent operations. See also hostile. (JP 3-18)

lodgment area — See airhead, Part 1; beachhead.

loft bombing — A method of bombing in which the delivery plane approaches the target at
a very low altitude, makes a definite pullup at a given point, releases the bomb at a
predetermined point during the pullup, and tosses the bomb onto the target. See also
toss bombing.

logistic assessment — An evaluation of: a. the logistic support required to support
particular military operations in a theater, country, or area; and b. the actual and/or
potential logistic support available for the conduct of military operations either within
the theater, country, or area, or located elsewhere.

logistic estimate of the situation — An appraisal resulting from an orderly examination of
the logistic factors influencing contemplated courses of action in order to provide
conclusions concerning the degree and manner of that influence.

logistic implications test — An analysis of the major logistic aspects of a joint strategic war
plan and the consideration of the logistic implications resultant therefrom as they may
limit the acceptability of the plan. The logistic analysis and consideration are
conducted concurrently with the development of the strategic plan. The objective is to
establish whether the logistic requirements generated by the plan are in balance with
availabilities, and to set forth those logistic implications that should be weighed by the
Joint Chiefs of Staff in their consideration of the plan. See also feasibility test.

logistic marking and reading symbology — A system designed to improve the flow of
cargo through the seaport of embarkation and debarkation using bar code technology.
See also logistics. (JP 4-01.6)

logistic routes — See line of communications.

logistics — Planning and executing the movement and support of forces. It includes those
aspects of military operations that deal with: a. design and development, acquisition,
storage, movement, distribution, maintenance, evacuation, and disposition of materiel;
b. movement, evacuation, and hospitalization of personnel; c. acquisition or
construction, maintenance, operation, and disposition of facilities; and d. acquisition or
furnishing of services. (JP 4-0)

logistics over-the-shore operation area — That geographic area required to conduct a
logistics over-the-shore operation. Also called LOA. See also logistics over-theshore
operations. (JP 4-01.6)

logistics over-the-shore operations — The loading and unloading of ships without the
benefit of deep draft-capable, fixed port facilities; or as a means of moving forces
closer to tactical assembly areas dependent on threat force capabilities. Also called
LOTS operations. See also joint logistics over-the-shore operations. (JP 4-01.6)

logistic sourcing — The identification of the origin and determination of the availability of
the time-phased force and deployment data nonunit logistic requirements.

logistic support — Support that encompasses the logistic services, materiel, and
transportation required to support the continental United States-based and worldwide
deployed forces. (JP 4-0)

logistic support (medical) — Medical care, treatment, hospitalization, and evacuation as
well as the furnishing of medical services, supplies, materiel, and adjuncts thereto.

long-range bomber aircraft — A bomber designed for a tactical operating radius over
2,500 nautical miles at design gross weight and design bomb load.

long-range transport aircraft — See transport aircraft.

look — (*) In mine warfare, a period during which a mine circuit is receptive of an

loran — (*) A long-range radio navigation position fixing system using the time difference
of reception of pulse type transmissions from two or more fixed stations. This term is
derived from the words long-range electronic navigation.

lot — Specifically, a quantity of material all of which was manufactured under identical
conditions and assigned an identifying lot number.

low airburst — (*) The fallout safe height of burst for a nuclear weapon which maximizes
damage to or casualties on surface targets. See also types of burst.

low-altitude missile engagement zone — See weapon engagement zone. (JP 3-52)

low-altitude parachute extraction system — A low-level, self-contained system capable
of delivering heavy loads into an area where air landing is not feasible from an
optimum aircraft wheel altitude of 5 to 10 feet above ground level. One or more
platforms may be dropped. Also called LAPES. (JP 3-17)

low angle — (*) In artillery and naval gunfire support, an order or request to obtain low
angle fire.

low angle fire — (*) Fire delivered at angles of elevation below the elevation that
corresponds to the maximum range of the gun and ammunition concerned.

low angle loft bombing — (*) Type of loft bombing of free fall bombs wherein weapon
release occurs at an angle less than 35 degrees above the horizontal. See also loft

low dollar value item — An item that normally requires considerably less management
effort than those in the other management intensity groupings.

low level flight — See terrain flight.

low level transit route — (*) A temporary corridor of defined dimensions established in
the forward area to minimize the risk to friendly aircraft from friendly air defenses or
surface forces. Also called LLTR. (JP 3-52)

low oblique — See oblique air photograph.

low velocity drop — (*) A drop procedure in which the drop velocity does not exceed 30
feet per second.

low visibility operations — Sensitive operations wherein the political-military restrictions
inherent in covert and clandestine operations are either not necessary or not feasible;
actions are taken as required to limit exposure of those involved and/or their activities.
Execution of these operations is undertaken with the knowledge that the action and/or
sponsorship of the operation may preclude plausible denial by the initiating power.
(JP 3-05.1)



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