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Military Terms and Definitions

named area of interest — The geographical area where information that will satisfy a
specific information requirement can be collected. Named areas of interest are usually
selected to capture indications of adversary courses of action, but also may be related to
conditions of the battlespace. Also called NAI. See also area of interest. (JP 2-01.3)

napalm — 1. Powdered aluminum soap or similar compound used to gelatinize oil or
gasoline for use in napalm bombs or flame throwers. 2. The resultant gelatinized

nap-of-the-earth flight — See terrain flight.

narcoterrorism — Terrorism that is linked to illicit drug trafficking. (JP 3-07.4)

National Air Mobility System — A broad and comprehensive system of civilian and
military capabilities and organizations that provides the President and Secretary of
Defense and combatant commanders with rapid global mobility. This system
effectively integrates the management of airlift, air refueling, and air mobility support
assets, processes, and procedures into an integrated whole. Also called NAMS. See
also airlift; air mobility; air refueling. (JP 3-17)

national capital region — A geographic area encompassing the District of Columbia and
eleven local jurisdictions in the State of Maryland and the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Also called NCR. (JP 3-28)

national censorship — The examination and control under civil authority of
communications entering, leaving, or transiting the borders of the United States, its
territories, or its possessions. See also censorship.

National Communications System — The telecommunications system that results from
the technical and operational integration of the separate telecommunications systems of
the several executive branch departments and agencies having a significant
telecommunications capability. Also called NCS.

national critical infrastructure and key assets — The infrastructure and assets vital to a
nation’s security, governance, public health and safety, economy, and public
confidence. They include telecommunications, electrical power systems, gas and oil
distribution and storage, water supply systems, banking and finance, transportation,
emergency services, industrial assets, information systems, and continuity of
government operations. Also called NCI&KA. (JP 3-28)

national defense area — An area established on non-Federal lands located within the
United States or its possessions or territories for the purpose of safeguarding classified
defense information or protecting Department of Defense (DOD) equipment and/or
materiel. Establishment of a national defense area temporarily places such non-Federal
lands under the effective control of the Department of Defense and results only from an
emergency event. The senior DOD representative at the scene will define the
boundary, mark it with a physical barrier, and post warning signs. The landowner’s
consent and cooperation will be obtained whenever possible; however, military
necessity will dictate the final decision regarding location, shape, and size of the
national defense area. Also called NDA.

National Defense Reserve Fleet — 1. Including the Ready Reserve Force, a fleet
composed of ships acquired and maintained by the Maritime Administration
(MARAD) for use in mobilization or emergency. 2. Less the Ready Reserve Force, a
fleet composed of the older dry cargo ships, tankers, troop transports, and other assets
in MARAD’s custody that are maintained at a relatively low level of readiness. They
are acquired by MARAD from commercial ship operators under the provisions of the
Merchant Marine Act of 1936 and are available only on mobilization or congressional
declaration of an emergency. Because the ships are maintained in a state of minimum
preservation, activation requires 30 to 90 days and extensive shipyard work, for many.
Also called NDRF. See also Ready Reserve Force. (JP 3-02.2)

national defense strategy — A document approved by the Secretary of Defense for
applying the Armed Forces of the United States in coordination with Department of
Defense agencies and other instruments of national power to achieve national security
strategy objectives. Also called NDS. (JP 3-0)

national detainee reporting center — National-level center that obtains and stores
information concerning enemy prisoners of war, civilian internees, and retained
personnel and their confiscated personal property. May be established upon the
outbreak of an armed conflict or when persons are captured or detained by U.S.
military forces in the course of the full range of military operations. Accounts for all
persons who pass through the care, custody, and control of the U.S. Department of
Defense. Also called NDRC. (JP 3-63)

National Disaster Medical System — A coordinated partnership between Departments of
Homeland Security, Health and Human Services, Defense, and Veterans Affairs
established for the purpose of responding to the needs of victims of a public health
emergency. Also called NDMS. (JP 3-41)

national emergency — A condition declared by the President or the Congress by virtue of
powers previously vested in them that authorize certain emergency actions to be
undertaken in the national interest. Action to be taken may include partial, full, or total
mobilization of national resources. See also mobilization. (JP 3-28)

National Incident Management System — A national crisis response system that provides
a consistent, nationwide approach for Federal, state, local, and tribal governments; the
private sector; and nongovernmental organizations to work effectively and efficiently
together to prepare for, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of
cause, size, or complexity. Also called NIMS. (JP 3-41)

national information infrastructure — The nationwide interconnection of
communications networks, computers, databases, and consumer electronics that make
vast amounts of information available to users. The national information infrastructure
encompasses a wide range of equipment, including cameras, scanners, keyboards,
facsimile machines, computers, switches, compact disks, video and audio tape, cable,
wire, satellites, fiber-optic transmission lines, networks of all types, televisions,
monitors, printers, and much more. The friendly and adversary personnel who make
decisions and handle the transmitted information constitute a critical component of the
national information infrastructure. Also called NII. See also defense information
infrastructure; global information infrastructure; information. (JP 3-13)

national infrastructure — (*) Infrastructure provided and financed by a NATO member
in its own territory solely for its own forces (including those forces assigned to or
designated for NATO). See also infrastructure.

national intelligence — The terms “national intelligence” and “intelligence related to the
national security” each refers to all intelligence, regardless of the source from which
derived and including information gathered within or outside of the United States,
which pertains, as determined consistent with any guidelines issued by the President, to
the interests of more than one department or agency of the Government; and that
involves (a) threats to the United States, its people, property, or interests; (b) the
development, proliferation, or use of weapons of mass destruction; or (c) any other
matter bearing on United States national or homeland security. (JP 2-01.2)

national intelligence estimate — A strategic estimate of the capabilities, vulnerabilities,
and probable courses of action of foreign nations produced at the national level as a
composite of the views of the intelligence community. Also called NIE.

national intelligence support team — A nationally sourced team composed of intelligence
and communications experts from Defense Intelligence Agency, Central Intelligence
Agency, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, National Security Agency, or other
intelligence community agencies as required. Also called NIST. See also intelligence;
national intelligence. (JP 2-0)

national intelligence surveys — Basic intelligence studies produced on a coordinated
interdepartmental basis and concerned with characteristics, basic resources, and
relatively unchanging natural features of a foreign country or other area.

national interagency fire center — A facility located in Boise, Idaho, that is jointly
operated by several federal agencies and is dedicated to coordination, logistic support,
and improved weather services in support of fire management operations throughout
the United States. Also called NIFC. (JP 3-28)

National Military Command System — The priority component of the Global Command
and Control System designed to support the President, Secretary of Defense and Joint
Chiefs of Staff in the exercise of their responsibilities. Also called NMCS. (JP 6-0)

National Military Strategy — A document approved by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs
of Staff for distributing and applying military power to attain national security strategy
and national defense strategy objectives. Also called NMS. See also National
Security Strategy; strategy; theater strategy. (JP 3-0)

national operations center — The primary national hub for domestic incident management
operational coordination and situational awareness. A standing 24 hours a day, 7 days a
week interagency organization fusing law enforcement, national intelligence,
emergency response, and private-sector reporting. Also called NOC. (JP 3-28)

national policy — A broad course of action or statements of guidance adopted by the
government at the national level in pursuit of national objectives.

National Reconnaissance Office — A Department of Defense agency tasked to ensure that
the United States has the technology and spaceborne and airborne assets needed to
acquire intelligence worldwide, including support to such functions as monitoring of
arms control agreements, indications and warning, and the planning and conducting of
military operations. This mission is accomplished through research and development,
acquisition, and operation of spaceborne and airborne intelligence data collection
systems. Also called NRO. (JP 2-0)

national response coordination center — A multiagency center that provides overall
federal response and recovery coordination for incidents of national significance and
emergency management program implementation. This center is a functional
component of the national operations center. Also called NRCC. (JP 3-28)

national security — A collective term encompassing both national defense and foreign
relations of the United States. Specifically, the condition provided by: a. a military or
defense advantage over any foreign nation or group of nations; b. a favorable foreign
relations position; or c. a defense posture capable of successfully resisting hostile or
destructive action from within or without, overt or covert. See also security.

National Security Agency/Central Security Service Representative — The senior theater
or military command representative of the Director, National Security Agency/Chief,
Central Security Service in a specific country or military command headquarters who
provides the Director, National Security Agency, with information on command plans
requiring cryptologic support. The National Security Agency/Central Security Service
representative serves as a special advisor to the combatant commander for cryptologic
matters, to include signals intelligence, communications security, and computer
security. Also called NCR. See also counterintelligence. (JP 2-01.2)

National Security Council — A governmental body specifically designed to assist the
President in integrating all spheres of national security policy. The President, Vice
President, Secretary of State, and Secretary of Defense are statutory members. The
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff; Director, Central Intelligence Agency; and the
Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs serve as advisers. Also called

national security interests — The foundation for the development of valid national
objectives that define US goals or purposes. National security interests include
preserving US political identity, framework, and institutions; fostering economic
well-being; and bolstering international order supporting the vital interests of the
United States and its allies.

National Security Strategy — A document approved by the President of the United States
for developing, applying, and coordinating the instruments of national power to achieve
objectives that contribute to national security. Also called NSS. See also National
Military Strategy; strategy; theater strategy. (JP 3-0)

national shipping authority — (*) The organization within each Allied government
responsible in time of war for the direction of its own merchant shipping. Also called
NSA. (JP 4-01.2)

national special security event — A designated event that, by virtue of its political,
economic, social, or religious significance, may be the target of terrorism or other
criminal activity. Also called NSSE. (JP 3-28)

National Stock Number — The 13-digit stock number replacing the 11-digit Federal Stock
Number. It consists of the 4-digit Federal Supply Classification code and the 9-digit
National Item Identification Number. The National Item Identification Number
consists of a 2-digit National Codification Bureau number designating the central
cataloging office (whether North Atlantic Treaty Organization or other friendly
country) that assigned the number and a 7-digit (xxx-xxxx) nonsignificant number.
The number shall be arranged as follows: 9999-00-999-9999. Also called NSN.

national support element — Any national organization or activity that supports national
forces that are a part of a multinational force. Their mission is nation-specific support
to units and common support that is retained by the nation. Also called NSE. See also
multinational force; support. (JP 1)

National System for Geospatial Intelligence — The combination of technology, policies,
capabilities, doctrine, activities, people, data, and communities necessary to produce
geospatial intelligence in an integrated, multi-intelligence environment. Also called
NSG. (JP 2-03)

nation assistance — Civil and/or military assistance rendered to a nation by foreign forces
within that nation’s territory during peacetime, crises or emergencies, or war based on
agreements mutually concluded between nations. Nation assistance programs include,
but are not limited to, security assistance, foreign internal defense, other Title 10, US
Code programs, and activities performed on a reimbursable basis by Federal agencies
or intergovernmental organizations. (JP 3-0)

natural disaster — An emergency situation posing significant danger to life and property
that results from a natural cause. See also domestic emergencies. (JP 3-07.6)

nautical chart — See hydrographic chart.

nautical mile — A measure of distance equal to one minute of arc on the Earth’s surface.
The United States has adopted the international nautical mile equal to 1,852 meters or
6,076.11549 feet. Also called nm.

nautical plotting chart — (*) An outline chart, devoid of hydrographic information, of a
specific scale and projection, usually portraying a graticule and compass rose, designed
to be ancillary to standard nautical charts, and produced either as an individual chart or
a part of a coordinated series.

naval advanced logistic support site — An overseas location used as the primary
transshipment point in the theater of operations for logistic support. A naval advanced
logistic support site possesses full capabilities for storage, consolidation, and transfer of
supplies and for support of forward-deployed units (including replacements units)
during major contingency and wartime periods. Naval advanced logistic support sites,
with port and airfield facilities in close proximity, are located within the theater of
operations but not near the main battle areas, and must possess the throughput capacity
required to accommodate incoming and outgoing intertheater airlift and sealift. When
fully activated, the naval advanced logistic support site should consist of facilities and
services provided by the host nation, augmented by support personnel located in the
theater of operations, or both. Also called NALSS or Naval ALSS. See also logistic
support; naval forward logistic site; support; theater of operations. (JP 3-35)

Naval Air Training and Operating Procedures Standardization manual — Series of
general and specific aircraft procedural manuals that govern the operations of naval
aircraft. Also called NATOPS manual. (JP 3-04)

naval base — A naval base primarily for support of the forces afloat, contiguous to a port or
anchorage, consisting of activities or facilities for which the Navy has operating
responsibilities, together with interior lines of communications and the minimum
surrounding area necessary for local security. (Normally, not greater than an area of 40
square miles.) See also base complex.

naval beach group — A permanently organized naval command within an amphibious
force comprised of a commander and staff, a beachmaster unit, an amphibious
construction battalion, and assault craft units, designed to provide an administrative
group from which required naval tactical components may be made available to the
attack force commander and to the amphibious landing force commander. Also called
NBG. See also shore party.

naval coastal warfare — Coastal sea control, harbor defense, and port security, executed
both in coastal areas outside the United States in support of national policy and in the
United States as part of this Nation’s defense. Also called NCW. (JP 3-10)

naval coastal warfare commander — An officer designated to conduct naval coastal
warfare missions within a designated operational area. Also called NCWC. (JP 3-10)

naval construction force — The combined construction units of the Navy, including
primarily the mobile construction battalions and the amphibious construction battalions.
These units are part of the operating forces and represent the Navy’s capability for
advanced base construction. Also called NCF.

naval coordination and protection of shipping — Control exercised by naval authorities
of movement, routing, reporting, convoy organization, and tactical diversion of allied
merchant shipping. It does not include the employment or active protection of such
shipping. Also called NCAPS. (JP 4-01.2)

naval coordination and protection of shipping officer — A naval officer appointed to
form merchant convoys and control and coordinate the routing and movements of such
convoys, independently sailed merchant ships, and hospital ships in and out of a port or
base. (JP 4-01.2)

naval coordination and protection of shipping organization — The organization within
the Navy which carries out the specific responsibilities of the Chief of Naval
Operations to provide for the control and protection of movements of merchant ships in
time of war. Also called NCAPS organization. (JP 4-01.2)

naval expeditionary warfare — Military operations mounted from the sea, usually on
short notice, consisting of forward deployed, or rapidly deployable, self-sustaining
naval forces tailored to achieve a clearly stated objective. Also called NEW. See also
expedition. (JP 3-33)

naval forward logistic site — An overseas location, with port and airfield facilities nearby,
which provides logistic support to naval forces within the theater of operations during
major contingency and wartime periods. Naval forward logistic sites may be located in
close proximity to main battle areas to permit forward staging of services, throughput
of high priority cargo, advanced maintenance, and battle damage repair. Naval forward
logistic sites are linked to in-theater naval advanced logistic support sites by intratheater
airlift and sealift, but may also serve as transshipment points for intertheater movement
of high-priority cargo into areas of direct combat. In providing fleet logistic support,
naval forward logistic site capabilities may range from very austere to near those of a
naval advanced logistic support site. Also called NFLS or Naval FLS. See also
logistic support; naval advanced logistic support site; staging. (JP 3-35)

naval gunfire operations center — (*) The agency established in a ship to control the
execution of plans for the employment of naval gunfire, process requests for naval
gunfire support, and to allot ships to forward observers. Ideally located in the same
ship as the supporting arms coordination center.

naval gunfire spotting team — The unit of a shore fire control party that designates
targets; controls commencement, cessation, rate, and types of fire; and spots fire on the
target. See also field artillery observer; spotter.

naval gunfire support — Fire provided by Navy surface gun systems in support of a unit or
units tasked with achieving the commander’s objectives. A subset of naval surface fire
support. Also called NGFS. See also naval surface fire support. (JP 3-09)

naval mobile environmental team — A team of naval personnel organized, trained, and
equipped to support maritime special operations by providing weather, oceanography,
mapping, charting, and geodesy support. Also called NMET. (JP 3-05)

naval operation — 1. A naval action (or the performance of a naval mission) that may be
strategic, operational, tactical, logistic, or training. 2. The process of carrying on or
training for naval combat in order to gain the objectives of any battle or campaign.

naval or Marine (air) base — An air base for support of naval or Marine air units,
consisting of landing strips, seaplane alighting areas, and all components of related
facilities for which the Navy or Marine Corps has operating responsibilities, together
with interior lines of communications and the minimum surrounding area necessary for
local security. (Normally, not greater than an area of 20 square miles.) See also base

naval port control office — The authority established at a port or port complex to
coordinate arrangements for logistic support and harbor services to ships under naval
control and to otherwise support the naval control of shipping organization.

naval special warfare — A designated naval warfare specialty that conducts operations in
the coastal, riverine, and maritime environments. Naval special warfare emphasizes
small, flexible, mobile units operating under, on, and from the sea. These operations
are characterized by stealth, speed, and precise, violent application of force. Also
called NSW. (JP 3-05)

naval special warfare forces — Those Active and Reserve Component Navy forces
designated by the Secretary of Defense that are specifically organized, trained, and
equipped to conduct and support special operations. Also called NSW forces or
NAVSOF. (JP 3-05.1)

naval special warfare group — A permanent Navy echelon III major command to which
most naval special warfare forces are assigned for some operational and all
administrative purposes. It consists of a group headquarters with command and
control, communications, and support staff; sea-air-land teams; and sea-air-land team
delivery vehicle teams. Also called NSWG. (JP 3-05.1)

naval special warfare special operations component — The Navy special operations
component of a unified or subordinate unified command or joint special operations task
force. Also called NAVSOC. (JP 3-05)

naval special warfare task element — A provisional subordinate element of a naval
special warfare task unit, employed to extend the command and control and support
capabilities of its parent task unit. Also called NSWTE. See also naval special
warfare task unit. (JP 3-05.1)

naval special warfare task group — A provisional naval special warfare organization that
plans, conducts, and supports special operations in support of fleet commanders and
joint force special operations component commanders. Also called NSWTG.
(JP 3-05.1)

naval special warfare task unit — A provisional subordinate unit of a naval special
warfare task group. Also called NSWTU. See also naval special warfare task
group. (JP 3-05.1)

naval special warfare unit — A permanent Navy organization forward based to control
and support attached naval special warfare forces. Also called NSWU. (JP 3-05.1)

naval stores — (*) Any articles or commodities used by a naval ship or station, such as
equipment; consumable supplies; clothing; petroleum, oils, and lubricants; medical
supplies; and ammunition.

naval support area — (*) A sea area assigned to naval ships detailed to support an
amphibious operation. See also fire support area.

naval surface fire support — Fire provided by Navy surface gun and missile systems in
support of a unit or units. Also called NSFS. See also fire support. (JP 3-09.3)

naval tactical data system — A complex of data inputs, user consoles, converters,
adapters, and radio terminals interconnected with high-speed, general-purpose
computers and its stored programs. Combat data is collected, processed, and composed
into a picture of the overall tactical situation that enables the force commander to make
rapid, accurate evaluations and decisions.

navigational grid — (*) A series of straight lines, superimposed over a conformal
projection and indicating grid north, used as an aid to navigation. The interval of the
grid lines is generally a multiple of 60 or 100 nautical miles. See also military grid.

navigation head — A transshipment point on a waterway where loads are transferred
between water carriers and land carriers. A navigation head is similar in function to a
railhead or truckhead.

navigation mode — In a flight control system, a control mode in which the flight path of an
aircraft is automatically maintained by signals from navigation equipment.

Navy cargo handling battalion — A mobile logistic support unit capable of worldwide
deployment in its entirety or in specialized detachments. It is organized, trained, and
equipped to: a. load and offload Navy and Marine Corps cargo carried in maritime prepositioning
ships and merchant breakbulk or container ships in all environments; b.
operate an associated temporary ocean cargo terminal; c. load and offload Navy and
Marine Corps cargo carried in military-controlled aircraft; and d. operate an associated
expeditionary air cargo terminal. Also called NCHB or Navy CHB. Two sources of
Navy cargo handling battalions are: a. Navy cargo handling and port group — The
active duty, cargo handling, battalion-sized unit composed solely of active duty
personnel. Also called NAVCHAPGRU. b. Naval Reserve cargo handling
battalion — A reserve cargo handling battalion composed solely of selected reserve
personnel. Also called NRCHB. See also maritime pre-positioning ships. (JP 4-01.6)

Navy cargo handling force — The combined cargo handling units of the Navy, including
primarily the Navy cargo handling and port group, the Naval Reserve cargo handling
training battalion, and the Naval Reserve cargo handling battalion. These units are part
of the operating forces and represent the Navy’s capability for open ocean cargo
handling. Also called NCHF. See also Navy cargo handling battalion.

Navy special operations component — The Navy component of a joint force special
operations component. Also called NAVSOC. See also Air Force special operations
component; Army special operations component. (JP 3-05.1)

Navy support element — The maritime pre-positioning force element that is composed of
naval beach group staff and subordinate unit personnel, a detachment of Navy cargo
handling force personnel, and other Navy components, as required. It is tasked with
conducting the off-load and ship-to-shore movement of maritime pre-positioned
equipment and/or supplies. Also called NSE. (JP 3-02.2)

Navy tactical air control center — See tactical air control center. (JP 3-09.3)

Navy-unique fleet essential aircraft — Combatant commander-controlled airlift assets
deemed essential for providing air transportation in support of naval operations’
transportation requirements. This capability is intended to provide a balance and
supplement to other airlift assets to ensure the Navy’s ability to respond to emergency
and wartime requirements. Also called NUFEA. (JP 3-17)

N-day — See times.

near miss (aircraft) — Any circumstance in flight where the degree of separation between
two aircraft is considered by either pilot to have constituted a hazardous situation
involving potential risk of collision.

near real time — (*) Pertaining to the timeliness of data or information which has been
delayed by the time required for electronic communication and automatic data
processing. This implies that there are no significant delays. Also called NRT. See
also real time.

neatlines — (*) The lines that bound the body of a map, usually parallels and meridians.
See also graticule.

need to know — A criterion used in security procedures that requires the custodians of
classified information to establish, prior to disclosure, that the intended recipient must
have access to the information to perform his or her official duties.

negation — Measures to deceive, disrupt, deny, degrade, or destroy an adversary’s space
systems and services or any other space system or service used by an adversary that is
hostile to US national interests. See also space control. (JP 3-14)

negative phase of the shock wave — The period during which the pressure falls below
ambient and then returns to the ambient value. See also positive phase of the shock

negative photo plane — (*) The plane in which a film or plate lies at the moment of

negligible risk (nuclear) — A degree of risk where personnel are reasonably safe, with the
exceptions of dazzle or temporary loss of night vision. See also emergency risk

nerve agent — (*) A potentially lethal chemical agent which interferes with the
transmission of nerve impulses. (JP 3-11)

net call sign — (*) A call sign which represents all stations within a net. See also call sign.

net, chain, cell system — Patterns of clandestine organization, especially for operational
purposes. Net is the broadest of the three; it usually involves: a. a succession of
echelons; and b. such functional specialists as may be required to accomplish its
mission. When it consists largely or entirely of nonstaff employees, it may be called an
agent net. Chain focuses attention upon the first of these elements; it is commonly
defined as a series of agents and informants who receive instructions from and pass
information to a principal agent by means of cutouts and couriers. Cell system
emphasizes a variant of the first element of net; its distinctive feature is the grouping of
personnel into small units that are relatively isolated and self-contained. In the interest
of maximum security for the organization as a whole, each cell has contact with the rest
of the organization only through an agent of the organization and a single member of
the cell. Others in the cell do not know the agent, and nobody in the cell knows the
identities or activities of members of other cells.

net (communications) — An organization of stations capable of direct communications on
a common channel or frequency.

net control station — A communications station designated to control traffic and enforce
circuit discipline within a given net. Also called NCS.

net explosive weight — The actual weight in pounds of explosive mixtures or compounds,
including the trinitrotoluene equivalent of energetic material, that is used in
determination of explosive limits and explosive quantity data arcs. Also called NEW.
(JP 4-09)

net inventory assets — That portion of the total materiel assets that is designated to meet
the materiel inventory objective. It consists of the total materiel assets less the
peacetime materiel consumption and losses through normal appropriation and
procurement leadtime periods.

net sweep — (*) In naval mine warfare, a two-ship sweep, using a netlike device, designed
to collect drifting mines or scoop them up from the sea bottom.

net weight — Weight of a ground vehicle without fuel, engine oil, coolant, on-vehicle
materiel, cargo, or operating personnel.

network operations — Activities conducted to operate and defend the Global Information
Grid. Also called NETOPS. (JP 6-0)

neutral — In combat and combat support operations, an identity applied to a track whose
characteristics, behavior, origin, or nationality indicate that it is neither supporting nor
opposing friendly forces. See also hostile; suspect; unknown.

neutrality — In international law, the attitude of impartiality during periods of war adopted
by third states toward a belligerent and subsequently recognized by the belligerent,
which creates rights and duties between the impartial states and the belligerent. In a
United Nations enforcement action, the rules of neutrality apply to impartial members
of the United Nations except so far as they are excluded by the obligation of such
members under the United Nations Charter.

neutralization — (*) In mine warfare, a mine is said to be neutralized when it has been
rendered, by external means, incapable of firing on passage of a target, although it may
remain dangerous to handle.

neutralization fire — Fire which is delivered to render the target ineffective or unusable.
See also fire.

neutralize — 1. As pertains to military operations, to render ineffective or unusable. 2. To
render enemy personnel or material incapable of interfering with a particular operation.
3. To render safe mines, bombs, missiles, and booby traps. 4. To make harmless
anything contaminated with a chemical agent.

neutral state — In international law, a state that pursues a policy of neutrality during war.
See also neutrality.

neutron induced activity — (*) Radioactivity induced in the ground or an object as a
result of direct irradiation by neutrons.

news media representative — An individual employed by a civilian radio or television
station, newspaper, newsmagazine, periodical, or news agency to gather and report on a
newsworthy event. Also called NMR. See also public affairs. (JP 3-61)

nickname — A combination of two separate unclassified words that is assigned an
unclassified meaning and is employed only for unclassified administrative, morale, or
public information purposes.

night effect — (*) An effect mainly caused by variations in the state of polarization of
reflected waves, which sometimes result in errors in direction finding bearings. The
effect is most frequent at nightfall.

night vision device — Any electro-optical device that is used to detect visible and infrared
energy and provide a visible image. Night vision goggles, forward-looking infrared,
thermal sights, and low-light level television are night vision devices. Also called
NVD. See also forward-looking infrared; night vision goggles(s). (JP 3-09.3)

night vision goggle(s) — An electro-optical image intensifying device that detects visible
and near-infrared energy, intensifies the energy, and provides a visible image for night
viewing. Night vision goggles can be either hand-held or helmet-mounted. Also called
NVG. See also night vision device. (JP 3-09.3)

node — 1. A location in a mobility system where a movement requirement is originated,
processed for onward movement, or terminated. 2. In communications and computer
systems, the physical location that provides terminating, switching, and gateway access
services to support information exchange. 3. An element of a system that represents a
person, place, or physical thing. (JP 3-0)

no-fire area — An area designated by the appropriate commander into which fires or their
effects are prohibited. Also called NFA. See also fires. (JP 3-09.3)

no-fire line — (*) A line short of which artillery or ships do not fire except on request or
approval of the supported commander, but beyond which they may fire at any time
without danger to friendly troops.

nominal filter — (*) A filter capable of cutting off a nominated minimum percentage by
weight of solid particles greater than a stated micron size.

nominal focal length — (*) An approximate value of the focal length, rounded off to some
standard figure, used for the classification of lenses, mirrors, or cameras.

nominal scale — See principal scale; scale.

nominal weapon — (*) A nuclear weapon producing a yield of approximately 20 kilotons.
See also kiloton weapon; megaton weapon; subkiloton weapon.

nonair transportable — That which is not transportable by air by virtue of dimension,
weight, or special characteristics or restrictions.

nonaligned state — A state that pursues a policy of nonalignment.

nonalignment — The political attitude of a state that does not associate or identify itself
with the political ideology or objective espoused by other states, groups of states, or
international causes, or with the foreign policies stemming therefrom. It does not
preclude involvement, but expresses the attitude of no precommitment to a particular
state (or block) or policy before a situation arises.

nonappropriated funds — Funds generated by DOD military and civilian personnel and
their dependents and used to augment funds appropriated by the Congress to provide a
comprehensive, morale-building welfare, religious, educational, and recreational
program, designed to improve the well-being of military and civilian personnel and
their dependents.

nonbattle injury — A person who becomes a casualty due to circumstances not directly
attributable to hostile action or terrorist activity. Also called NBI.

noncombatant evacuation operations — Operations directed by the Department of State
or other appropriate authority, in conjunction with the Department of Defense, whereby
noncombatants are evacuated from foreign countries when their lives are endangered
by war, civil unrest, or natural disaster to safe havens or to the United States. Also
called NEOs. See also evacuation; geospatial-intelligence contingency package;
noncombatant evacuees; operation; safe haven. (JP 3-0)

noncombatant evacuees — 1. US citizens who may be ordered to evacuate by competent
authority include: a. civilian employees of all agencies of the US Government and
their dependents, except as noted in 2a below; b. military personnel of the Armed
Forces of the United States specifically designated for evacuation as noncombatants;
and c. dependents of members of the Armed Forces of the United States. 2. US (and
non-US) citizens who may be authorized or assisted (but not necessarily ordered to
evacuate) by competent authority include: a. civilian employees of US Government
agencies and their dependents, who are residents in the country concerned on their own
volition, but express the willingness to be evacuated; b. private US citizens and their
dependents; c. military personnel and dependents of members of the Armed Forces of
the United States outlined in 1c above, short of an ordered evacuation; and d.
designated personnel, including dependents of persons listed in 1a through 1c above, as
prescribed by the Department of State. See also noncombatant evacuation
operations. (JP 3-68)

noncontiguous facility — A facility for which the Service indicated has operating
responsibility, but which is not located on, or in the immediate vicinity of, a base
complex of that Service. Its area includes only that actually occupied by the facility,
plus the minimum surrounding area necessary for close-in security. See also base

nonconventional assisted recovery — Personnel recovery conducted by
indigenous/surrogate personnel that are trained, supported, and led by special
operations forces, unconventional warfare ground and maritime forces, or other
government agencies’ personnel that have been specifically trained and directed to
establish and operate indigenous or surrogate infrastructures. Also called NAR. (JP 3-50)

nondeferrable issue demand — Issue demand related to specific periods of time that will
not exist after the close of those periods, even though not satisfied during the period.

nondeployable account — An account where Reservists (officer and enlisted), either in
units or individually, are assigned to a reserve component category or a training/retired
category when the individual has not completed initial active duty for training or its
equivalent. Reservists in a nondeployable account are not considered as trained
strength assigned to units or mobilization positions and are not deployable overseas on
land with those units or mobilization positions. See also training pipeline.

nondestructive electronic warfare — Those electronic warfare actions, not including
employment of wartime reserve modes, that deny, disrupt, or deceive rather than
damage or destroy. See also electronic warfare. (JP 3-13.1)

nonexpendable supplies and materiel — Supplies not consumed in use that retain their
original identity during the period of use, such as weapons, machines, tools, and

nonfixed medical treatment facility — A medical treatment facility designed to be moved
from place to place, including medical treatment facilities afloat.

nongovernmental organization — A private, self-governing, not-for-profit organization
dedicated to alleviating human suffering; and/or promoting education, health care,
economic development, environmental protection, human rights, and conflict
resolution; and/or encouraging the establishment of democratic institutions and civil
society. Also called NGO. (JP 3-08)

nonhostile casualty — A person who becomes a casualty due to circumstances not directly
attributable to hostile action or terrorist activity. Casualties due to the elements,
self-inflicted wounds, and combat fatigue are nonhostile casualties. Also called
NHCS. See also casualty; casualty type; hostile casualty.

nonlethal weapon — A weapon that is explicitly designed and primarily employed so as to
incapacitate personnel or materiel, while minimizing fatalities, permanent injury to
personnel, and undesired damage to property and the environment. Also called NLW.
(JP 3-28)

non-linear approach — (*) In approach and landing systems, a final approach in which
the nominal flight path is not a straight line.

nonorganic transportation requirement — Unit personnel and cargo for which the
transportation source must be an outside agency, normally a component of US
Transportation Command.

nonpersistent agent — A chemical agent that when released dissipates and/or loses its
ability to cause casualties after 10 to 15 minutes. (JP 3-11)

nonprior service personnel — Individuals without any prior military service, who have not
completed basic inactive duty training, and who receive a commission in or enlist
directly into an Armed Force of the United States.

nonproliferation — Those actions (e.g., diplomacy, arms control, multilateral agreements,
threat reduction assistance, and export controls) taken to prevent the proliferation of
weapons of mass destruction by dissuading or impeding access to, or distribution of,
sensitive technologies, material, and expertise. Also called NP. See also
counterproliferation. (JP 3-40)

nonrecurring demand — A request by an authorized requisitioner to satisfy a materiel
requirement known to be a one-time occurrence. This materiel is required to provide
initial stockage allowances, to meet planned program requirements, or to satisfy a
one-time project or maintenance requirement. Nonrecurring demands normally will
not be considered by the supporting supply system in the development of
demand-based elements of the requirements computation.

non-registered publication — (*) A publication which bears no register number and for
which periodic accounting is not required.

nonscheduled units — Units of the landing force held in readiness for landing during the
initial unloading period, but not included in either scheduled or on-call waves. This
category usually includes certain of the combat support units and most of the combat
service support units with higher echelon (division and above) reserve units of the
landing force. Their landing is directed when the need ashore can be predicted with a
reasonable degree of accuracy.

non-self-sustaining containership — A containership that does not have a built-in
capability to load or off-load containers, and requires a port crane or craneship service.
Also called NSSCS. See also containership; self-sustaining containership. (JP 4-01.7)

nonstandard item — An item of supply determined by standardization action as not
authorized for procurement.

nonstandard unit — A force requirement identified in a time-phased force and deployment
data for which movement characteristics have not been described in the type unit
characteristics file. The planner is required to submit detailed movement characteristics
for these units.

nonstocked item — An item that does not meet the stockage criteria for a given activity,
and therefore is not stocked at the particular activity.

nonstrategic nuclear forces — Those nuclear-capable forces located in an operational area
with a capability to employ nuclear weapons by land, sea, or air forces against opposing
forces, supporting installations, or facilities. Such forces may be employed, when
authorized by competent authority, to support operations that contribute to the
accomplishment of the commander’s mission within the theater of operations.

non-submarine contact chart — (*) A special naval chart, at a scale of 1:100,000 to
1:1,000,000, showing bathymetry, bottom characteristics, wreck data, and
non-submarine contact data for coastal and off-shore waters. It is designed for use in
conducting submarine and antisubmarine warfare operations. Also called non-sub
contact chart.

non-unit record — A time-phased force and deployment data file entry for non-unit-related
cargo and personnel. Characteristics include using and providing organization, type of
movement, routing data, cargo category, weight, volume, area required, and number of
personnel requiring transportation.

non-unit-related cargo — All equipment and supplies requiring transportation to an
operational area, other than those identified as the equipment or accompanying supplies
of a specific unit (e.g., resupply, military support for allies, and support for nonmilitary
programs, such as civil relief). Also called NURC.

non-unit-related personnel — All personnel requiring transportation to or from an
operational area, other than those assigned to a specific unit (e.g., filler personnel;
replacements; temporary duty/temporary additional duty personnel; civilians; medical
evacuees; and retrograde personnel). Also called NRP or NUP.

non-US forces — Includes all armed forces of states other than US forces. US forces may
act in defense of non-US forces when so designated by the President or Secretary of

normal charge — Charge employing a standard amount of propellant to fire a gun under
ordinary conditions, as compared with a reduced charge. See also reduced charge.

normal impact effect — See cardinal point effect.

normal intelligence reports — A category of reports used in the dissemination of
intelligence, conventionally used for the immediate dissemination of individual items
of intelligence. See also intelligence reporting; specialist intelligence report.

normal lighting — (*) Lighting of vehicles as prescribed or authorized by the law of a
given country without restrictions for military reasons. See also reduced lighting.

normal operations — Generally and collectively, the broad functions that a combatant
commander undertakes when assigned responsibility for a given geographic or
functional area. Except as otherwise qualified in certain unified command plan
paragraphs that relate to particular commands, “normal operations” of a combatant
commander include: planning and execution of operations throughout the range of
military operations; planning and conduct of cold war activities; planning and
administration of military assistance; and maintaining the relationships and exercising
the directive or coordinating authority prescribed in JP 0-2 and JP 4-01.

North American Aerospace Defense Command — A bi-national command of the US and
Canada that provides aerospace surveillance, warning and assessment of aerospace
attack, and maintains the sovereignty of US and Canadian airspace. Also called

no-strike list — A list of objects or entities characterized as protected from the effects of
military operations under international law and/or rules of engagement. Attacking
these may violate the law of armed conflict or interfere with friendly relations with
indigenous personnel or governments. Also called NSL. See also law of armed
conflict. (JP 3-60)

notice to airmen — A notice containing information concerning the establishment,
condition, or change in any aeronautical facility, service, procedures, or hazard, the
timely knowledge of which is essential to personnel concerned with flight operations.
Also called NOTAM.

notional ship — A theoretical or average ship of any one category used in transportation
planning (e.g., a Liberty ship for dry cargo; a T-2 tanker for bulk petroleum, oils, and
lubricants; a personnel transport of 2,400 troop spaces).

not mission capable, maintenance — Material condition indicating that systems and
equipment are not capable of performing any of their assigned missions because of
maintenance requirements. Also called NMCM. See also not mission capable,

not mission capable, supply — Material condition indicating that systems and equipment
are not capable of performing any of their assigned missions because of maintenance
work stoppage due to a supply shortage. Also called NMCS. See also not mission
capable, maintenance.

not seriously injured — The casualty status of a person whose injury may or may not
require hospitalization; medical authority does not classify as very seriously injured,
seriously injured, or incapacitating illness or injury; and the person can communicate
with the next of kin. Also called NSI. See also casualty status.

no-wind position — See air position.

nuclear accident — See nuclear weapon(s) accident.

nuclear airburst — (*) The explosion of a nuclear weapon in the air, at a height greater
than the maximum radius of the fireball. See also types of burst.

nuclear bonus effects — (*) Desirable damage or casualties produced by the effects from
friendly nuclear weapons that cannot be accurately calculated in targeting as the
uncertainties involved preclude depending on them for a militarily significant result.

nuclear burst — See types of burst.

nuclear certifiable — (*) Indicates a unit or vehicle possessing the potential of passing
functional tests and inspections of all normal and emergency systems affecting the
nuclear weapons.

nuclear certified — See nuclear certified delivery unit; nuclear certified delivery

nuclear certified delivery unit — (*) Any level of organization and support elements
which are capable of executing nuclear missions in accordance with appropriate
bilateral arrangements and NATO directives. See also nuclear delivery unit.

nuclear certified delivery vehicle — (*) A delivery vehicle whose compatibility with a
nuclear weapon has been certified by the applicable nuclear power through formal
procedures. See also nuclear delivery vehicle.

nuclear cloud — (*) An all-inclusive term for the volume of hot gases, smoke, dust, and
other particulate matter from the nuclear bomb itself and from its environment, which is
carried aloft in conjunction with the rise of the fireball produced by the detonation of
the nuclear weapon.

nuclear collateral damage — Undesired damage or casualties produced by the effects from
friendly nuclear weapons.

nuclear column — (*) A hollow cylinder of water and spray thrown up from an
underwater burst of a nuclear weapon, through which the hot, high-pressure gases
formed in the explosion are vented to the atmosphere. A somewhat similar column of
dirt is formed in an underground explosion.

nuclear commitment — (*) A statement by a NATO member that specific forces have
been committed or will be committed to NATO in a nuclear only or dual capable role.

nuclear contact surface burst — An explosion of a nuclear weapon whose center of
energy is at the surface of land or water.

nuclear coordination — A broad term encompassing all the actions involved with planning
nuclear strikes, including liaison between commanders, for the purpose of satisfying
support requirements or because of the extension of weapons effects into the territory
of another.

nuclear damage — (*) 1. Light Damage — Damage which does not prevent the
immediate use of equipment or installations for which it was intended. Some repair by
the user may be required to make full use of the equipment or installations. 2.

Moderate Damage — Damage which prevents the use of equipment or installations
until extensive repairs are made. 3. Severe Damage — Damage which prevents use of
equipment or installations permanently.

nuclear damage assessment — (*) The determination of the damage effect to the
population, forces, and resources resulting from actual nuclear attack. It is performed
during and after an attack. The operational significance of the damage is not evaluated
in this assessment.

nuclear delivery unit — (*) Any level of organization capable of employing a nuclear
weapon system or systems when the weapon or weapons have been released by proper

nuclear delivery vehicle — (*) That portion of the weapon system which provides the
means of delivery of a nuclear weapon to the target.

nuclear detonation detection and reporting system — (*) A system deployed to provide
surveillance coverage of critical friendly target areas, and indicate place, height of
burst, yield, and ground zero of nuclear detonations. Also called NUDETS.

nuclear dud — A nuclear weapon that, when launched at or emplaced on a target, fails to
provide any explosion of that part of the weapon designed to produce the nuclear yield.

nuclear energy — All forms of energy released in the course of a nuclear fission or nuclear

nuclear exoatmospheric burst — The explosion of a nuclear weapon above the sensible
atmosphere (above 120 kilometers) where atmospheric interaction is minimal. See also
types of burst.

nuclear incident — An unexpected event involving a nuclear weapon, facility, or
component, resulting in any of the following, but not constituting a nuclear weapon(s)
accident: a. an increase in the possibility of explosion or radioactive contamination; b.
errors committed in the assembly, testing, loading, or transportation of equipment,
and/or the malfunctioning of equipment and materiel which could lead to an
unintentional operation of all or part of the weapon arming and/or firing sequence, or
which could lead to a substantial change in yield, or increased dud probability; and c.
any act of God, unfavorable environment, or condition resulting in damage to the
weapon, facility, or component.

nuclear intelligence — Intelligence derived from the collection and analysis of radiation
and other effects resulting from radioactive sources. Also called NUCINT. See also
intelligence. (JP 2-0)

nuclear logistic movement — The transport of nuclear weapons in connection with supply
or maintenance operations. Under certain specified conditions, combat aircraft may be
used for such movements.

nuclear nation — (*) Military nuclear powers and civil nuclear powers.

nuclear parity — A condition at a given point in time when opposing forces possess
nuclear offensive and defensive systems approximately equal in overall combat

nuclear planning system — A system composed of personnel, directives, and electronic
data processing systems to directly support geographic nuclear combatant commanders
in developing, maintaining, and disseminating nuclear operation plans.

nuclear proximity-surface burst — An explosion of a nuclear weapon at a height less than
the maximum radius of its fireball, but low enough to facilitate cratering and/or the
propagation of a shock wave into the ground.

nuclear radiation — Particulate and electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei
in various nuclear processes. The important nuclear radiations, from the weapon
standpoint, are alpha and beta particles, gamma rays, and neutrons. (JP 3-11)

nuclear reactor — A facility in which fissile material is used in a self-supporting chain
reaction (nuclear fission) to produce heat and/or radiation for both practical application
and research and development.

nuclear round — See complete round.

nuclear safety line — (*) A line selected, if possible, to follow well-defined topographical
features and used to delineate levels of protective measures, degrees of damage or risk
to friendly troops, and/or to prescribe limits to which the effects of friendly weapons
may be permitted to extend.

nuclear stalemate — A concept that postulates a situation wherein the relative strength of
opposing nuclear forces results in mutual deterrence against employment of nuclear

nuclear strike warning — (*) A warning of impending friendly or suspected enemy
nuclear attack.

nuclear support — The use of nuclear weapons against hostile forces in support of friendly
air, land, and naval operations. See also immediate nuclear support; preplanned
nuclear support.

nuclear transmutation — Artificially induced modification (nuclear reaction) of the
constituents of certain nuclei, thus giving rise to different nuclides.

nuclear underground burst — (*) The explosion of a nuclear weapon in which the center
of the detonation lies at a point beneath the surface of the ground. See also types of

nuclear underwater burst — (*) The explosion of a nuclear weapon in which the center
of the detonation lies at a point beneath the surface of the water. See also types of

nuclear vulnerability assessment — (*) The estimation of the probable effect on
population, forces, and resources from a hypothetical nuclear attack. It is performed
predominantly in the preattack period; however, it may be extended to the transattack
or postattack periods.

nuclear warfare — (*) Warfare involving the employment of nuclear weapons. See also
postattack period; transattack period.

nuclear warning message — A warning message that must be disseminated to all affected
friendly forces any time a nuclear weapon is to be detonated if effects of the weapon
will have impact upon those forces.

nuclear weapon — (*) A complete assembly (i.e., implosion type, gun type, or
thermonuclear type), in its intended ultimate configuration which, upon completion of
the prescribed arming, fusing, and firing sequence, is capable of producing the intended
nuclear reaction and release of energy. (JP 3-11)

nuclear weapon degradation — The degeneration of a nuclear warhead to such an extent
that the anticipated nuclear yield is lessened.

nuclear weapon employment time — (*) The time required for delivery of a nuclear
weapon after the decision to fire has been made.

nuclear weapon exercise — (*) An operation not directly related to immediate operational
readiness. It includes removal of a weapon from its normal storage location, preparing
for use, delivery to an employment unit, and the movement in a ground training
exercise, to include loading aboard an aircraft or missile and return to storage. It may
include any or all of the operations listed above, but does not include launching or
flying operations. Typical exercises include aircraft generation exercises, ground
readiness exercises, ground tactical exercises, and various categories of inspections
designed to evaluate the capability of the unit to perform its prescribed mission. See
also immediate operational readiness; nuclear weapon maneuver.

nuclear weapon maneuver — (*) An operation not directly related to immediate
operational readiness. It may consist of all those operations listed for a nuclear weapon
exercise and is extended to include flyaway in combat aircraft, but does not include
expenditure of the weapon. Typical maneuvers include nuclear operational readiness
maneuvers and tactical air operations. See also immediate operational readiness;
nuclear weapon exercise.

nuclear weapon(s) accident — An unexpected event involving nuclear weapons or
radiological nuclear weapon components that results in any of the following; a.
accidental or unauthorized launching, firing, or use by United States forces or United
States supported allied forces of a nuclear-capable weapon system that could create the
risk of an outbreak of war; b. nuclear detonation; c. nonnuclear detonation or burning
of a nuclear weapon or radiological nuclear weapon component; d. radioactive
contamination; e. seizure, theft, loss, or destruction of a nuclear weapon or radiological
nuclear weapon component, including jettisoning; and f. public hazard, actual or

nuclear weapons state — See military nuclear power.

nuclear weapons surety — Materiel, personnel, and procedures that contribute to the
security, safety, and reliability of nuclear weapons and to the assurance that there will
be no nuclear weapon accidents, incidents, unauthorized weapon detonations, or
degradation in performance at the target.

nuclear yields — The energy released in the detonation of a nuclear weapon, measured in
terms of the kilotons or megatons of trinitrotoluene required to produce the same
energy release. Yields are categorized as follows:
very low — less than 1 kiloton;
low — 1 kiloton to 10 kilotons;
medium — over 10 kilotons to 50 kilotons;
high — over 50 kilotons to 500 kilotons;
very high — over 500 kilotons.
See also nominal weapon; subkiloton weapon.

nuisance minefield — (*) A minefield laid to delay and disorganize the enemy and to
hinder the use of an area or route. See also minefield.

number . . . in (out) — (*) In artillery, term used to indicate a change in status of weapon
number _______________.

numbered beach — In amphibious operations, a subdivision of a colored beach, designated
for the assault landing of a battalion landing team or similarly sized unit, when landed
as part of a larger force. (JP 3-02)

numbered fleet — A major tactical unit of the Navy immediately subordinate to a major
fleet command and comprising various task forces, elements, groups, and units for the
purpose of prosecuting specific naval operations. See also fleet.

numbered wave — See wave.

numerical scale — See scale.



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