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Military Terms and Definitions

radar — A radio detection device that provides information on range, azimuth, and/or
elevation of objects.

radar advisory — The term used to indicate that the provision of advice and information is
based on radar observation.

radar altimetry area — (*) A large and comparatively level terrain area with a defined
elevation which can be used in determining the altitude of airborne equipment by the
use of radar.

radar beacon — A receiver-transmitter combination that sends out a coded signal when
triggered by the proper type of pulse, enabling determination of range and bearing
information by the interrogating station or aircraft. Also called RB.

radar camouflage — (*) The use of radar absorbent or reflecting materials to change the
radar echoing properties of a surface of an object.

radar clutter — (*) Unwanted signals, echoes, or images on the face of the display tube
which interfere with observation of desired signals.

radar countermeasures — See electronic warfare; chaff.

radar coverage — (*) The limits within which objects can be detected by one or more
radar stations.

radar danning — (*) In naval mine warfare, a method of navigating by using radar to keep
the required distance from a line of dan buoys.

radar deception — See electromagnetic deception.

radar exploitation report — A formatted statement of the results of a tactical radar
imagery reconnaissance mission. The report includes the interpretation of the sensor
imagery. Also called RADAREXREP.

radar fire — (*) Gunfire aimed at a target which is tracked by radar. See also fire.

radar guardship — (*) Any ship which has been assigned the task by the officer in tactical
command of maintaining the radar watch.

radar horizon — (*) The locus of points at which the rays from a radar antenna become
tangential to the Earth’s surface. On the open sea this locus is horizontal, but on land it
varies according to the topographical features of the terrain.

radar imagery — Imagery produced by recording radar waves reflected from a given target

radar intelligence — Intelligence derived from data collected by radar. Also called
RADINT. See also intelligence. (JP 2-0)

radar netting — (*) The linking of several radars to a single center to provide integrated
target information.

radar netting station — (*) A center which can receive data from radar tracking stations
and exchange this data among other radar tracking stations, thus forming a radar netting
system. See also radar netting unit; radar tracking station.

radar netting unit — Optional electronic equipment that converts the operations central of
certain air defense fire distribution systems to a radar netting station. See also radar
netting station.

radar picket — Any ship, aircraft, or vehicle, stationed at a distance from the force
protected, and integrated into a common operational picture for the purpose of
increasing the radar detection range. (JP 3-07.4)

radar reconnaissance — Reconnaissance by means of radar to obtain information on
enemy activity and to determine the nature of terrain.

radarscope overlay — (*) A transparent overlay for placing on the radarscope for
comparison and identification of radar returns.

radarscope photography — (*) A film record of the returns shown by a radar screen.

radar signal film — The film on which is recorded all the reflected signals acquired by a
coherent radar, and that must be viewed or processed through an optical correlator to
permit interpretation.

radar silence — (*) An imposed discipline prohibiting the transmission by radar of
electromagnetic signals on some or all frequencies.

radar spoking — Periodic flashes of the rotating time base on a radial display. Sometimes
caused by mutual interference.

radar tracking station — A radar facility that has the capability of tracking moving targets.

radial — A magnetic bearing extending from a very high frequency omni-range and/or
tactical air navigation station.

radial displacement — (*) On vertical photographs, the apparent “leaning out,” or the
apparent displacement of the top of any object having height in relation to its base. The
direction of displacement is radial from the principal point on a true vertical, or from
the isocenter on a vertical photograph distorted by tip or tilt.

radiant exposure — See thermal exposure.

radiation dose — The total amount of ionizing radiation absorbed by material or tissues.
See also exposure dose. (JP 3-11)

radiation dose rate — Measurement of radiation dose per unit of time. (JP 3-11)

radiation exposure state — (*) The condition of a unit, or exceptionally an individual,
deduced from the cumulative whole body radiation dose(s) received. It is expressed as
a symbol which indicates the potential for future operations and the degree of risk if
exposed to additional nuclear radiation.

radiation exposure status — Criteria to assist the commander in measuring unit exposure
to radiation based on total past cumulative dose, normally expressed in centigray. Also
called RES. (JP 3-11)

radiation intelligence — Intelligence derived from the collection and analysis of
non-information-bearing elements extracted from the electromagnetic energy
unintentionally emanated by foreign devices, equipments, and systems, excluding those
generated by the detonation of atomic or nuclear weapons.

radiation intensity — (*) The radiation dose rate at a given time and place. It may be
used, coupled with a figure, to denote the radiation intensity at a given number of
hours after a nuclear burst, e.g., RI-3 is the radiation intensity 3 hours after the time of
burst. Also called RI.

radiation scattering — (*) The diversion of radiation (thermal, electromagnetic, or
nuclear) from its original path as a result of interaction or collisions with atoms,
molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media between the source of
the radiation (e.g., a nuclear explosion) and a point at some distance away. As a result
of scattering, radiation (especially gamma rays and neutrons) will be received at such a
point from many directions instead of only from the direction of the source.

radiation sickness — (*) An illness resulting from excessive exposure to ionizing
radiation. The earliest symptoms are nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, which may be
followed by loss of hair, hemorrhage, inflammation of the mouth and throat, and
general loss of energy.

radioactive decay — (*) The decrease in the radiation intensity of any radioactive material
with respect to time.

radioactive decay curve — (*) A graph line representing the decrease of radioactivity with
the passage of time.

radioactive decay rate — The time rate of the disintegration of radioactive material
generally accompanied by the emission of particles and/or gamma radiation.

radioactivity — The spontaneous emission of radiation, generally alpha or beta particles,
often accompanied by gamma rays, from the nuclei of an unstable isotope.

radioactivity concentration guide — (*) The amount of any specified radioisotope that is
acceptable in air and water for continuous consumption.
radio and wire integration — The combining of wire circuits with radio facilities. Also
called RWI.

radio approach aids — (*) Equipment making use of radio to determine the position of an
aircraft with considerable accuracy from the time it is in the vicinity of an airfield or
carrier until it reaches a position from which landing can be carried out.

radio beacon — (*) A radio transmitter which emits a distinctive or characteristic signal
used for the determination of bearings, courses, or location.
radio countermeasures — See electronic warfare.

radio deception — The employment of radio to deceive the enemy. Radio deception
includes sending false dispatches, using deceptive headings, employing enemy call
signs, etc. See also electronic warfare.

radio detection — (*) The detection of the presence of an object by radio-location without
precise determination of its position.

radio direction finding — (*) Radio-location in which only the direction of a station is
determined by means of its emissions.

radio direction finding database — The aggregate of information, acquired by both
airborne and surface means, necessary to provide support to radio direction-finding
operations to produce fixes on target transmitters and/or emitters. The resultant
bearings and fixes serve as a basis for tactical decisions concerning military operations,
including exercises, planned or underway.

radio fix — The location of a ship or aircraft by determining the direction of radio signals
coming to the ship or aircraft from two or more sending stations, the locations of which
are known.

radio frequency countermeasures — Any device or technique employing radio frequency
materials or technology that is intended to impair the effectiveness of enemy activity,
particularly with respect to precision guided weapons and sensor systems. Also called
RF CM. (JP 3-13.1)

radio guard — A ship, aircraft, or radio station designated to listen for and record
transmissions and to handle traffic on a designated frequency for a certain unit or units.

radiological accident — A loss of control over radiation or radioactive material that
presents a hazard to life, health, or property or that may result in any member of the
general population exceeding exposure limits for ionizing radiation. (JP 3-41)

radiological defense — (*) Defensive measures taken against the radiation hazards
resulting from the employment of nuclear and radiological weapons. (JP 3-41)

radiological dispersal device — An improvised assembly or process, other than a nuclear
explosive device, designed to disseminate radioactive material in order to cause
destruction, damage, or injury. Also called RDD. (JP 3-11)

radiological environment — (*) Conditions found in an area resulting from the presence
of a radiological hazard. (JP 3-41)

radiological exposure device — A radioactive source placed to cause injury or death. Also
called RED. (JP 3-11)

radiological monitoring — See monitoring.

radiological operation — (*) The employment of radioactive materials or radiation
producing devices to cause casualties or restrict the use of terrain. It includes the
intentional employment of fallout from nuclear weapons.

radiological survey — (*) The directed effort to determine the distribution and dose rates
of radiation in an area.

radiological survey flight altitude — The altitude at which an aircraft is flown during an
aerial radiological survey.

radio magnetic indicator — (*) An instrument which displays aircraft heading and
bearing to selected radio navigation aids.

radio navigation — (*) Radio-location intended for the determination of position or
direction or for obstruction warning in navigation.

radio range finding — (*) Radio-location in which the distance of an object is determined
by means of its radio emissions, whether independent, reflected, or retransmitted on the
same or other wavelength.

radio range station — (*) A radio navigation land station in the aeronautical radio
navigation service providing radio equi-signal zones. (In certain instances a radio range
station may be placed on board a ship.)

radio silence — (*) A condition in which all or certain radio equipment capable of
radiation is kept inoperative. (DOD only) (Note: In combined or United States Joint or
intra-Service communications the frequency bands and/or types of equipment affected
will be specified.)

radio telegraphy — The transmission of telegraphic codes by means of radio.

radio telephony — (*) The transmission of speech by means of modulated radio waves.

radius of action — (*) The maximum distance a ship, aircraft, or vehicle can travel away
from its base along a given course with normal combat load and return without
refueling, allowing for all safety and operating factors.

radius of damage — The distance from ground zero at which there is a 0.50 probability of
achieving the desired damage.

radius of integration — The distance from ground zero that indicates the area within which
the effects of both the nuclear detonation and conventional weapons are to be

radius of safety — (*) The horizontal distance from ground zero beyond which the weapon
effects on friendly troops are acceptable.

raid — An operation to temporarily seize an area in order to secure information, confuse an
adversary, capture personnel or equipment, or to destroy a capability. It ends with a
planned withdrawal upon completion of the assigned mission. (JP 3-0)

railhead — (*) A point on a railway where loads are transferred between trains and other
means of transport. See also navigation head. (JP 4-09)

railway line capacity — (*) The maximum number of trains which can be moved in each
direction over a specified section of track in a 24 hour period. See also route capacity.

railway loading ramp — (*) A sloping platform situated at the end or beside a track and
rising to the level of the floor of the rail cars or wagons.

rainfall (nuclear) — The water that is precipitated from the base surge clouds after an
underwater burst of a nuclear weapon. This rain is radioactive and presents an
important secondary effect of such a burst.

rainout — (*) Radioactive material in the atmosphere brought down by precipitation.

ramjet — (*) A jet-propulsion engine containing neither compressor nor turbine which
depends for its operation on the air compression accomplished by the forward motion
of the engine. See also pulsejet.

random minelaying — (*) In land mine warfare, the laying of mines without regard to

range — 1. The distance between any given point and an object or target. 2. Extent or
distance limiting the operation or action of something, such as the range of an aircraft,
ship, or gun. 3. The distance that can be covered over a hard surface by a ground
vehicle, with its rated payload, using the fuel in its tank and its cans normally carried as
part of the ground vehicle equipment. 4. Area equipped for practice in shooting at
targets. In this meaning, also called target range.

range marker — (*) A single calibration blip fed onto the time base of a radial display.
The rotation of the time base shows the single blips as a circle on the plan position
indicator scope. It may be used to measure range.

range markers — Two upright markers that may be lighted at night and placed so that,
when aligned, the direction indicated assists in piloting. They may be used in
amphibious operations to aid in beaching landing ships or craft.

Rangers — Rapidly deployable airborne light infantry organized and trained to conduct
highly complex joint direct action operations in coordination with or in support of other
special operations units of all Services. Rangers also can execute direct action
operations in support of conventional nonspecial operations missions conducted by a
combatant commander and can operate as conventional light infantry when properly
augmented with other elements of combined arms. (JP 3-05.1)

range spread — The technique used to place the mean point of impact of two or more units
100 meters apart on the gun-target line.

ranging — (*) The process of establishing target distance. Types of ranging include echo,
intermittent, manual, navigational, explosive echo, optical, radar, etc. See also spot.

rapid and precise response — Rapid and precise response is the ability of the defense
supply chain to meet the constantly changing needs of the joint force. (JP 4-0)

rapid global mobility — The timely movement, positioning, and sustainment of military
forces and capabilities across the range of military operations. See also mobility.
(JP 3-17)

rapid response force — A battalion minus-sized force providing responsive, missiontailored,
lightly armed ground units that can deploy on short notice, with minimal lift
assets, and capable of providing immediate or emergency response. Also called RRF.
(JP 3-27)

rated load — (*) The designed safe operating load for the equipment under prescribed

rate of fire — (*) The number of rounds fired per weapon per minute.

rate of march — (*) The average number of miles or kilometers to be traveled in a given
period of time, including all ordered halts. It is expressed in miles or kilometers in the
hour. See also pace.

ratification — 1. The declaration by which a nation formally accepts, with our without
reservation, the content of a standardization agreement. 2. The process of approving an
unauthorized commitment by an official who has the authority to do so. See also
implementation; reservation; subscription; unauthorized commitment. (JP 4-10)

rationalization — Any action that increases the effectiveness of allied forces through more
efficient or effective use of defense resources committed to the alliance.
Rationalization includes consolidation, reassignment of national priorities to higher
alliance needs, standardization, specialization, mutual support or improved
interoperability, and greater cooperation. Rationalization applies to both weapons
and/or materiel resources and non-weapons military matters.

ration dense — Foods that, through processing, have been reduced in volume and quantity
to a small compact package without appreciable loss of food value, quality, or
acceptance, with a high yield in relation to space occupied, such as dehydrates and

ratio print — A print the scale of which has been changed from that of the negative by
photographic enlargement or reduction.

ratline — An organized effort for moving personnel and/or material by clandestine means
across a denied area or border.

R-day — See times.

reachback — The process of obtaining products, services, and applications, or forces, or
equipment, or material from organizations that are not forward deployed. (JP 3-30)

reaction time — 1. The elapsed time between the initiation of an action and the required
response. 2. The time required between the receipt of an order directing an operation
and the arrival of the initial element of the force concerned in the designated area.

readiness — The ability of US military forces to fight and meet the demands of the national
military strategy. Readiness is the synthesis of two distinct but interrelated levels. a.
unit readiness — The ability to provide capabilities required by the combatant
commanders to execute their assigned missions. This is derived from the ability of
each unit to deliver the outputs for which it was designed. b. joint readiness — The
combatant commander’s ability to integrate and synchronize ready combat and support
forces to execute his or her assigned missions. See also military capability; National
Military Strategy.

readiness condition — See operational readiness.

ready position — (*) In helicopter operations, a designated place where a helicopter load
of troops and/or equipment waits for pick-up.

Ready Reserve — The Selected Reserve, Individual Ready Reserve, and Inactive National
Guard liable for active duty as prescribed by law (title 10, US Code, sections 10142,
12301, and 12302). See also active duty; Inactive National Guard; Individual
Ready Reserve; Selected Reserve. (JP 4-05)

ready-to-load date — The date when a unit will be ready to move from the origin, i.e.,
mobilization station. Also called RLD.

reallocation authority — (*) The authority given to NATO commanders and normally
negotiated in peacetime, to reallocate in an “emergency in war” national logistic
resources controlled by the combat forces under their command, and made available by
nations, in order to influence the battle logistically.

real property — Lands, buildings, structures, utilities systems, improvements, and
appurtenances thereto. Includes equipment attached to and made part of buildings and
structures (such as heating systems) but not movable equipment (such as plant

real time — Pertaining to the timeliness of data or information which has been delayed only
by the time required for electronic communication. This implies that there are no
noticeable delays. See also near real time.

rear area — For any particular command, the area extending forward from its rear
boundary to the rear of the area assigned to the next lower level of command. This area
is provided primarily for the performance of support functions. See also Army service
area. (JP 3-10)

rear area operations center/rear tactical operations center — A command and control
facility that serves as an area and/or subarea commander’s planning, coordinating,
monitoring, advising, and directing agency for area security operations. (JP 3-10)

rear echelon — (*) Elements of a force which are not required in the objective area.

rear guard — 1. The rearmost elements of an advancing or a withdrawing force. It has the
following functions: to protect the rear of a column from hostile forces; during the
withdrawal, to delay the enemy; during the advance, to keep supply routes open. 2.
Security detachment that a moving ground force details to the rear to keep it informed
and covered. See also guard.

rearming — 1. An operation that replenishes the prescribed stores of ammunition, bombs,
and other armament items for an aircraft, naval ship, tank, or armored vehicle
(including replacement of defective ordnance equipment) in order to make it ready for
combat service. 2. Resetting the fuze on a bomb or on an artillery, mortar, or rocket
projectile so that it will detonate at the desired time.

reattack recommendation — An assessment, derived from the results of battle damage
assessment and munitions effectiveness assessment, providing the commander
systematic advice on reattack of targets and further target selection to achieve
objectives. The reattack recommendation considers objective achievement, target, and
aimpoint selection, attack timing, tactics, and weapon system and munitions selection.
The reattack recommendation is a combined operations and intelligence function. Also
called RR. See also assessment; battle damage assessment; munitions effectiveness
assessment; target. (JP 3-60)

rebuild — The restoration of an item to a standard as nearly as possible to its original
condition in appearance, performance, and life expectancy. See also overhaul; repair.

receipt — A transmission made by a receiving station to indicate that a message has been
satisfactorily received.

receipt into the supply system — That point in time when the first item or first quantity of
the item of the contract has been received at or is en route to point of first delivery after
inspection and acceptance. See also procurement lead time. (JP 4-10)

receiving ship — The ship in a replenishment unit that receives the rig(s).

reception — 1. All ground arrangements connected with the delivery and disposition of air
or sea drops. Includes selection and preparation of site, signals for warning and
approach, facilitation of secure departure of agents, speedy collection of delivered
articles, and their prompt removal to storage places having maximum security. When a
group is involved, it may be called a reception committee. 2. Arrangements to
welcome and provide secure quarters or transportation for defectors, escapees, evaders,
or incoming agents. 3. The process of receiving, offloading, marshalling, and
transporting of personnel, equipment, and materiel from the strategic and/or intratheater
deployment phase to a sea, air, or surface transportation point of debarkation to the
marshalling area. (JP 3-35)

reclama — A request to duly constituted authority to reconsider its decision or its proposed

recognition — 1. The determination by any means of the individuality of persons, or of
objects such as aircraft, ships, or tanks, or of phenomena such as
communications-electronics patterns. 2. In ground combat operations, the
determination that an object is similar within a category of something already known;
e.g., tank, truck, man.

recognition signal — Any prearranged signal by which individuals or units may identify
each other.

recompression chamber — See hyperbaric chamber.

reconnaissance — A mission undertaken to obtain, by visual observation or other detection
methods, information about the activities and resources of an enemy or adversary, or to
secure data concerning the meteorological, hydrographic, or geographic characteristics
of a particular area. Also called RECON. (JP 2-0)

reconnaissance by fire — (*) A method of reconnaissance in which fire is placed on a
suspected enemy position to cause the enemy to disclose a presence by movement or
return of fire.

reconnaissance exploitation report — (*) A standard message format used to report the
results of a tactical air reconnaissance mission. Whenever possible the report should
include the interpretation of sensor imagery. Also called RECCEXREP.

reconnaissance in force — (*) An offensive operation designed to discover and/or test the
enemy’s strength or to obtain other information.

reconnaissance patrol — See patrol.

reconnaissance photography — Photography taken to obtain information on the results of
bombing, or on enemy movements, concentrations, activities, and forces. The primary
purposes do not include making maps, charts, or mosaics.

reconstitution site — A location selected by the surviving command authority as the site at
which a damaged or destroyed headquarters can be reformed from survivors of the
attack and/or personnel from other sources, predesignated as replacements.

record information — All forms (e.g., narrative, graphic, data, computer memory) of
information registered in either temporary or permanent form so that it can be retrieved,
reproduced, or preserved.

recoverable item — An item that normally is not consumed in use and is subject to return
for repair or disposal. See also reparable item.

recovery — 1. In air (aviation) operations, that phase of a mission which involves the return
of an aircraft to a land base or platform afloat. 2. The retrieval of a mine from the
location where emplaced. 3. In personnel recovery, actions taken to physically gain
custody of isolated personnel and return them to the initial reception point. 4. Actions
taken to extricate damaged or disabled equipment for return to friendly control or repair
at another location. See also evader; evasion; recovery; recovery force. (JP 3-50)

recovery activation signal — In personnel recovery, a precoordinated signal from an
evader to a receiving or observing source that indicates, “I am here, start the recovery
planning.” Also called RAS. See also evader; evasion; recovery operations; signal.
(JP 3-50)

recovery airfield — Any airfield, military or civil, at which aircraft might land
post-H-hour. It is not expected that combat missions would be conducted from a
recovery airfield. See also airfield.

recovery and reconstitution — 1. Those actions taken by one nation prior to, during, and
following an attack by an enemy nation to minimize the effects of the attack,
rehabilitate the national economy, provide for the welfare of the populace, and
maximize the combat potential of remaining forces and supporting activities. 2. Those
actions taken by a military force during or after operational employment to restore its
combat capability to full operational readiness. See also recovery. (JP 3-35)

recovery force — In personnel recovery, an organization consisting of personnel and
equipment with a mission of locating, supporting, and recovering isolated personnel,
and returning them to friendly control. See also evader; evasion; recovery
operations. (JP 3-50)

recovery mechanism — Designated indigenous or surrogate infrastructure that is
specifically developed, trained, and directed by US forces to contact, authenticate,
support, move, and exfiltrate designated isolated personnel from uncertain or hostile
areas back to friendly control. Recovery mechanisms may operate with other US or
multinational personnel recovery capabilities. Also called RM. (JP 3-50)

recovery operations — Operations conducted to search for, locate, identify, recover, and
return isolated personnel, human remains, sensitive equipment, or items critical to
national security. (JP 3-50)

recovery procedures — See explosive ordnance disposal procedures.

recovery site — In personnel recovery, an area from which isolated personnel can be
recovered. See also escapee; evader; evasion; evasion and escape. (JP 3-50)

recovery team — In personnel recovery, designated US or US-directed forces, who are
specifically trained to operate in conjunction with indigenous or surrogate forces, and
are tasked to contact, authenticate, support, move, and exfiltrate isolated personnel.
Also called RT. (JP 3-50)

recovery vehicle — In personnel recovery, the vehicle on which isolated personnel are
boarded and transported from the recovery site. (JP 3-50)

recovery zone — A designated geographic area from which special operations forces can
be extracted by air, boat, or other means. Also called RZ. (JP 3-05.1)

rectification — (*) In photogrammetry, the process of projecting a tilted or oblique
photograph on to a horizontal reference plane.

recuperation — Not to be used. See recovery and reconstitution.

recurring demand — A request by an authorized requisitioner to satisfy a materiel
requirement for consumption or stock replenishment that is anticipated to recur
periodically. Demands for which the probability of future occurrence is unknown will
be considered as recurring. Recurring demands will be considered by the supporting
supply system in order to procure, store, and distribute materiel to meet similar
demands in the future.

redeployment — The transfer of forces and materiel to support another joint force
commander’s operational requirements, or to return personnel, equipment, and materiel
to the home and/or demobilization stations for reintegration and/or out-processing. See
also deployment. (JP 3-35)

redeployment airfield — (*) An airfield not occupied in its entirety in peacetime, but
available immediately upon outbreak of war for use and occupation by units redeployed
from their peacetime locations. It must have substantially the same standard of
operational facilities as the main airfield. See also airfield; departure airfield;
diversion airfield; main airfield.

RED HORSE — Air Force units wartime-structured to provide a heavy engineer capability.
They have a responsibility across the operational area, are not tied to a specific base,
and are not responsible for base operation and maintenance. These units are mobile,
rapidly deployable, and largely self-sufficient for limited periods of time. (JP 3-34)

redistribution — The utilization of logistic resources after Transfer of Authority necessary
for the fulfillment of the commander’s combat missions. The logistic resources are
designated in peacetime and will become assigned to the NATO commander in crisis
and conflict. (JP 4-08)

red team — An organizational element comprised of trained and educated members that
provide an independent capability to fully explore alternatives in plans and operations
in the context of the operational environment and from the perspective of adversaries
and others. (JP 2-0)

reduced charge — 1. The smaller of the two propelling charges available for naval guns.
2. Charge employing a reduced amount of propellant to fire a gun at short ranges as
compared to a normal charge. See also normal charge.

reduced lighting — (*) The reduction in brightness of ground vehicle lights by either
reducing power or by screening in such a way that any visible light is limited in output.
See also normal lighting.

reduced operating status — Applies to the Military Sealift Command ships withdrawn
from full operating status because of decreased operational requirements. A ship in
reduced operating status is crewed for a level of ship maintenance and possible future
operational requirements, with crew size predetermined contractually. The condition of
readiness in terms of calendar days required to attain full operating status is designated
by the numeral following the acronym ROS (e.g., ROS-5). Also called ROS. See also
Military Sealift Command. (JP 4-01.6)

reduction — The creation of lanes through a minefield or obstacle to allow passage of the
attacking ground force. (JP 3-15)

reduction (photographic) — The production of a negative, diapositive, or print at a scale
smaller than the original.

reefer — 1. A refrigerator. 2. A motor vehicle, railroad freight car, ship, aircraft, or other
conveyance, so constructed and insulated as to protect commodities from either heat or

reentry vehicle — (*) That part of a space vehicle designed to re-enter the Earth’s
atmosphere in the terminal portion of its trajectory. Also called RV. See also
maneuverable reentry vehicle; multiple reentry vehicle.

reference datum — As used in the loading of aircraft, an imaginary vertical plane at or near
the nose of the aircraft from which all horizontal distances are measured for balance
purposes. Diagrams of each aircraft show this reference datum as “balance station

reference diversion point — (*) One of a number of positions selected by the routing
authority on both sides of the route of a convoy or independent to facilitate diversion at

reference point — (*) A prominent, easily located point in the terrain.

reflected shock wave — When a shock wave traveling in a medium strikes the interface
between this medium and a denser medium, part of the energy of the shock wave
induces a shock wave in the denser medium and the remainder of the energy results in
the formation of a reflected shock wave that travels back through the less dense

reflex sight — (*) An optical or computing sight that reflects a reticle image (or images)
onto a combining glass for superimposition on the target.

refraction — The process by which the direction of a wave is changed when moving into
shallow water at an angle to the bathymetric contours. The crest of the wave advancing
in shallower water moves more slowly than the crest still advancing in deeper water,
causing the wave crest to bend toward alignment with the underwater contours.
(JP 4-01.6)

refuge area — (*) A coastal area considered safe from enemy attack to which merchant
ships may be ordered to proceed when the shipping movement policy is implemented.
See also safe anchorage.

refugee — A person who owning to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of
race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion,
is outside the country of his or her nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is
unwilling to avail himself or herself of the protection of that country. See also
dislocated civilian; displaced person; evacuee; expellee; stateless person. (JP 3-29)

regimental landing team — A task organization for landing comprised of an infantry
regiment reinforced by those elements that are required for initiation of its combat
function ashore.

regional air defense commander — Commander subordinate to the area air defense
commander and responsible for air and missile defenses in the assigned region.
Exercises authorities as delegated by the area air defense commander. Also called
RADC. (JP 3-01)

regional liaison group — A combined Department of State-Department of Defense
element collocated with a combatant command for the purpose of coordinating post
emergency evacuation plans. Also called RLG. (JP 3-68)

regional response coordination center — A standing facility that is activated to coordinate
regional response efforts, until a joint field office is established and/or the principal
federal official, federal or coordinating officer can assume their National Response Plan
coordination responsibilities. Also called RRCC. (JP 3-28)

regional satellite communications support center — United States Strategic Command
operational element responsible for providing the operational communications planners
with a single all-spectrum (extremely high frequency, super-high frequency, ultrahigh
frequency, Ku, and Ka) point of contact for accessing and managing satellite
communications (SATCOM) resources. Specific tasks include: supporting combatant
commanders’ deliberate and crisis planning, assisting combatant commanders in dayto-
day management of apportioned resources and allocating non-apportioned resources,
assisting theater spectrum managers, and facilitating SATCOM interface to the defense
information infrastructure. Also called RSSC.

regional security officer — A security officer responsible to the chief of mission
(ambassador), for security functions of all US embassies and consulates in a given
country or group of adjacent countries. Also called RSO. (JP 3-10)

register — (*) In cartography, the correct position of one component of a composite map
image in relation to the other components, at each stage of production.

registration — The adjustment of fire to determine firing data corrections.

registration fire — (*) Fire delivered to obtain accurate data for subsequent effective
engagement of targets. See also fire.

registration point — (*) Terrain feature or other designated point on which fire is adjusted
for the purpose of obtaining corrections to firing data.

regrade — To determine that certain classified information requires, in the interests of
national defense, a higher or a lower degree of protection against unauthorized
disclosure than currently provided, coupled with a changing of the classification
designation to reflect such higher or lower degree.

regular drill — See unit training assembly.

regulated item — (*) Any item whose issue to a user is subject to control by an
appropriate authority for reasons that may include cost, scarcity, technical or hazardous
nature, or operational significance. Also called controlled item. See also critical
supplies and materiel.

regulating point — An anchorage, port, or ocean area to which assault and assault followon
echelons and follow-up shipping proceed on a schedule, and at which they are
normally controlled by the commander, amphibious task force, until needed in the
transport area for unloading. See also assault; commander, amphibious task force.
(JP 3-02)

regulating station — A command agency established to control all movements of
personnel and supplies into or out of a given area.

rehabilitation — (*) 1. The processing, usually in a relatively quiet area, of units or
individuals recently withdrawn from combat or arduous duty, during which units
recondition equipment and are rested, furnished special facilities, filled up with
replacements, issued replacement supplies and equipment, given training, and generally
made ready for employment in future operations. 2. The action performed in restoring
an installation to authorized design standards.

rehabilitative care — Therapy that provides evaluations and treatment programs using
exercises, massage, or electrical therapeutic treatment to restore, reinforce, or enhance
motor performance and restores patients to functional health allowing for their return to
duty or discharge from the Service. Also called restorative care. See also patient;
patient movement policy; theater. (JP 4-02)

rehearsal phase — In amphibious operations, the period during which the prospective
operation is practiced for the purpose of: (1) testing adequacy of plans, the timing of
detailed operations, and the combat readiness of participating forces; (2) ensuring that
all echelons are familiar with plans; and (3) testing communications-information
systems. See also amphibious operation. (JP 3-02)

reinforcement training unit — See voluntary training unit.

reinforcing — A support mission in which the supporting unit assists the supported unit to
accomplish the supported unit’s mission. Only like units (e.g., artillery to artillery,
intelligence to intelligence, armor to armor, etc) can be given a reinforcing/reinforced

reinforcing obstacles — Those obstacles specifically constructed, emplaced, or detonated
through military effort and designed to strengthen existing terrain to disrupt, fix, turn,
or block enemy movement. See also obstacle. (JP 3-15)

reintegrate — In personnel recovery, the task of conducting appropriate debriefings and
reintegrating recovered isolated personnel back to duty and their family. (JP 3-50)

relateral tell — (*) The relay of information between facilities through the use of a third
facility. This type of telling is appropriate between automated facilities in a degraded
communications environment. See also track telling.

relative altitude — See vertical separation.

relative biological effectiveness — The ratio of the number of rads of gamma (or X)
radiation of a certain energy that will produce a specified biological effect to the
number of rads of another radiation required to produce the same effect measures the
“relative biological effectiveness” of the latter radiation.

release — (*) In air armament, the intentional separation of a free-fall aircraft store, from
its suspension equipment, for purposes of employment of the store.

release altitude — Altitude of an aircraft above the ground at the time of release of bombs,
rockets, missiles, tow targets, etc.

release point (road) — A well-defined point on a route at which the elements composing a
column return under the authority of their respective commanders, each one of these
elements continuing its movement towards its own appropriate destination.

releasing commander (nuclear weapons) — A commander who has been delegated
authority to approve the use of nuclear weapons within prescribed limits. See also
executing commander (nuclear weapons).

releasing officer — A properly designated individual who may authorize the sending of a
message for and in the name of the originator. See also originator.

reliability diagram — (*) In cartography, a diagram showing the dates and quality of the
source material from which a map or chart has been compiled. See also information

reliability of source — See evaluation.

relief — (*) Inequalities of evaluation and the configuration of land features on the surface
of the Earth which may be represented on maps or charts by contours, hypsometric
tints, shading, or spot elevations.

relief in place — (*) An operation in which, by direction of higher authority, all or part of a
unit is replaced in an area by the incoming unit. The responsibilities of the replaced
elements for the mission and the assigned zone of operations are transferred to the
incoming unit. The incoming unit continues the operation as ordered.

religious support — The entire spectrum of professional duties that a chaplain provides and
performs in the dual role of religious leader and staff officer assisted by enlisted support
personnel. See also combatant command chaplain; command chaplain; lay leader;
religious support plan; religious support team. (JP 1-05)

religious support plan — A plan that describes how religious support will be provided to
all members of a joint force. When approved by the commander, it may be included as
an annex to an operation plan. Also called RSP. See also combatant command
chaplain; command chaplain; lay leader; religious support; religious support
team. (JP 1-05)

religious support team — A team that is composed of at least one chaplain and one
enlisted support person. Religious support teams assigned at Joint Staff and combatant
command level may be from different Services; those assigned at joint task force and
below are normally from the same Service. The team works together in designing,
implementing, and executing the command religious program. Also called RST. See
also combatant command chaplain; command chaplain; lay leader; religious
support; religious support plan. (JP 1-05)

relocatable building — A building designed to be readily moved, erected, disassembled,
stored, and reused. All types of buildings or building forms designed to provide
relocatable capabilities are included in this definition. In classifying buildings as
relocatable, the estimated funded and unfunded costs for average building disassembly,
repackaging (including normal repair and refurbishment of components), and
nonrecoverable building components, including typical foundations, may not exceed 20
percent of the building acquisition cost. Excluded from this definition are building
types and forms that are provided as an integral part of a mobile equipment item and
that are incidental portions of such equipment components, such as communications
vans or trailers. (JP 3-34)

remain-behind equipment — Unit equipment left by deploying forces at their bases when
they deploy. (JP 3-02.2)

remaining forces — The total surviving United States forces at any given stage of combat

remote delivery — (*) In mine warfare, the delivery of mines to a target area by any means
other than direct emplacement. The exact position of mines so laid may not be known.

remotely piloted vehicle — (*) An unmanned vehicle capable of being controlled from a
distant location through a communication link. It is normally designed to be
recoverable. See also drone.

render safe procedures — See explosive ordnance disposal procedures.

rendezvous area — In an amphibious operation, the area in which the landing craft and
amphibious vehicles rendezvous to form waves after being loaded, and prior to
movement to the line of departure.

reorder cycle — The interval between successive reorder (procurement) actions.

reorder point — 1. That point at which time a stock replenishment requisition would be
submitted to maintain the predetermined or calculated stockage objective. 2. The sum
of the safety level of supply plus the level for order and shipping time equals the
reorder point.

repair — The restoration of an item to serviceable condition through correction of a specific
failure or unserviceable condition. See also overhaul; rebuild.

repair and restoration — Repair, beyond emergency repair, of war-damaged facilities to
restore operational capability in accordance with combatant command standards of
construction, including repair and restoration of pavement surfaces. Normally, repairs
to facilities will be made using materials similar to those of the original construction.
For severely damaged facilities (i.e., essentially destroyed), restoration may require
reconstruction. (JP 3-34)

repair cycle — The stages through which a reparable item passes from the time of its
removal or replacement until it is reinstalled or placed in stock in a serviceable

repair cycle aircraft — Aircraft in the active inventory that are in or awaiting depot
maintenance, including those in transit to or from depot maintenance.

reparable item — An item that can be reconditioned or economically repaired for reuse
when it becomes unserviceable. See also recoverable item.

repatriate — A person who returns to his or her country or citizenship, having left said
native country either against his or her will, or as one of a group who left for reason of
politics, religion, or other pertinent reasons.

repatriation — 1. The procedure whereby American citizens and their families are
officially processed back into the United States subsequent to an evacuation. See also
evacuation. 2. The release and return of enemy prisoners of war to their own country
in accordance with the 1949 Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners
of War. (JP 1-0)

repeater-jammer — (*) A receiver transmitter device which amplifies, multiplies, and
retransmits the signals received, for purposes of deception or jamming.

replacement demand — A demand representing replacement of items consumed or worn

replacement factor — (*) The estimated percentage of equipment or repair parts in use
that will require replacement during a given period due to wearing out beyond repair,
enemy action, abandonment, pilferage, and other causes except catastrophes.

replacements — Personnel required to take the place of others who depart a unit.

replenishment at sea — (*) Those operations required to make a transfer of personnel
and/or supplies when at sea.

reportable incident — Any suspected or alleged violation of Department of Defense policy
or of other related orders, policies, procedures or applicable law, for which there is
credible information. (JP 3-63)

reported unit — A unit designation that has been mentioned in an agent report, captured
document, or interrogation report, but for which available information is insufficient to
include the unit in accepted order of battle holdings.

reporting post — (*) An element of the control and reporting system used to extend the
radar coverage of the control and reporting center. It does not undertake the control of

reporting time interval — 1. In surveillance, the time interval between the detection of an
event and the receipt of a report by the user. 2. In communications, the time for
transmission of data or a report from the originating terminal to the end receiver. See
also near real time.

representative downwind direction — (*) During the forecast period, the mean surface
downwind direction in the hazard area towards which the cloud travels.

representative downwind speed — (*) The mean surface downwind speed in the hazard
area during the forecast period.

representative fraction — The scale of a map, chart, or photograph expressed as a fraction
or ratio. See also scale.

request for assistance — A request based on mission requirements and expressed in terms
of desired outcome, formally asking the Department of Defense to provide assistance to
a local, state, tribal, or other federal agency. Also called RFA. (JP 3-28)

request for information — 1. Any specific time-sensitive ad hoc requirement for
intelligence information or products to support an ongoing crisis or operation not
necessarily related to standing requirements or scheduled intelligence production. A
request for information can be initiated to respond to operational requirements and will
be validated in accordance with the combatant command’s procedures. 2. The
National Security Agency/Central Security Service uses this term to state ad hoc signals
intelligence requirements. Also called RFI. See also information; intelligence.
(JP 2-0)

request modify — (*) In artillery and naval gunfire support, a request by any person, other
than the person authorized to make modifications to a fire plan, for a modification.

required delivery date — The date that a force must arrive at the destination and complete
unloading. Also called RDD.

required supply rate (ammunition) — The amount of ammunition expressed in terms of
rounds per weapon per day for ammunition items fired by weapons (and in terms of
other units of measure per day for bulk allotment and other items) estimated to be
required to sustain operations of any designated force without restriction for a specified
period. Tactical commanders use this rate to state their requirements for ammunition to
support planned tactical operations at specified intervals. The required supply rate is
submitted through command channels. It is consolidated at each echelon and is
considered by each commander in subsequently determining the controlled supply rate
within the command. Also called RSR. See also ammunition controlled supply rate.

requirements — See military requirement.

requirements capability — This capability provides a Joint Operation Planning and
Execution System user with the ability to identify, update, review, and delete data on
forces and sustainment required to support an operation plan or course of action.

requirements management system — A system for the management of theater and
national imagery collection requirements that provides automated tools for users in
support of submission, review, and validation of imagery nominations as requirements
to be tasked on national or Department of Defense imagery collection, production, and
exploitation resources. Also called RMS. See also imagery. (JP 2-01)

requiring activity — A military or other designated supported organization that identifies
and receives contracted support during military operations. See also supported unit.
(JP 4-10)

requisition — (*) 1. An authoritative demand or request especially for personnel, supplies,
or services authorized but not made available without specific request. 2. (DOD only)
To demand or require services from an invaded or conquered nation.

requisitioning objective — The maximum quantities of materiel to be maintained on hand
and on order to sustain current operations. It will consist of the sum of stocks
represented by the operating level, safety level, and the order and shipping time or
procurement lead time, as appropriate.

rescue combat air patrol — An aircraft patrol provided over that portion of an objective
area in which recovery operations are being conducted for the purpose of intercepting
and destroying hostile aircraft. Also called RESCAP. See also combat air patrol.
(JP 3-50)

rescue ship — (*) In shipping control, a ship of a convoy stationed at the rear of a convoy
column to rescue survivors.

research — All effort directed toward increased knowledge of natural phenomena and
environment and toward the solution of problems in all fields of science. This includes
basic and applied research.

reseau — (*) A grid system of a standard size in the image plane of a photographic system
used for mensuration purposes.

reservation — The stated qualification by a nation that describes the part of a
standardization agreement that it will not implement or will implement only with
limitations. See also implementation; ratification; subscription.

reserve — 1. Portion of a body of troops that is kept to the rear, or withheld from action at
the beginning of an engagement, in order to be available for a decisive movement. 2.
Members of the Military Services who are not in active service but who are subject to
call to active duty. 3. Portion of an appropriation or contract authorization held or set
aside for future operations or contingencies and, in respect to which, administrative
authorization to incur commitments or obligations has been withheld. See also
operational reserve; reserve supplies.

reserve aircraft — Those aircraft that have been accumulated in excess of immediate needs
for active aircraft and are retained in the inventory against possible future needs. See
also aircraft.

reserve component category — The category that identifies an individual’s status in a
reserve component. The three reserve component categories are Ready Reserve,
Standby Reserve, and Retired Reserve. Each reservist is identified by a specific reserve
component category designation.

Reserve Components — Reserve Components of the Armed Forces of the United States
are: a. the Army National Guard of the United States; b. the Army Reserve; c. the
Naval Reserve; d. the Marine Corps Reserve; e. the Air National Guard of the United
States; f. the Air Force Reserve; and g. the Coast Guard Reserve. Also called RCs.
See also component; reserve. (JP 4-05)

reserved demolition target — A target for demolition, the destruction of which must be
controlled at a specific level of command because it plays a vital part in the tactical,
operational, or strategic plan, or because of the importance of the structure itself, or
because the demolition may be executed in the face of the enemy. See also demolition

reserved obstacles — Those demolition obstacles that are deemed critical to the plan for
which the authority to detonate is reserved by the designating commander. See also
obstacle. (JP 3-15)

reserved route — (*) In road traffic, a specific route allocated exclusively to an authority
or formation. See also route.

reserve supplies — Supplies accumulated in excess of immediate needs for the purpose of
ensuring continuity of an adequate supply. Also called reserves. See also battle
reserves; beach reserves; contingency retention stock; economic retention stock;
individual reserves; initial reserves; unit reserves.

resettled person — A refugee or an internally displaced person wishing to return
somewhere other than his or her previous home or land within the country or area of
original displacement. (JP 3-29)

residual capabilities assessment — Provides an automated or manual crisis action
capability to assess the effects of weapons of mass destruction events for operations
planning. Residual capabilities assessment tasks include, but are not limited to,
assessment of infrastructure and facility damage, fallout prediction, weapons effect
analysis, population impact assessment, and tracking strategic assets.

residual contamination — (*) Contamination which remains after steps have been taken
to remove it. These steps may consist of nothing more than allowing the contamination
to decay normally.

residual forces — Unexpended portions of the remaining United States forces that have an
immediate combat potential for continued military operations, and that have been
deliberately withheld from utilization.

residual radiation — (*) Nuclear radiation caused by fallout, artificial dispersion of
radioactive material, or irradiation which results from a nuclear explosion and persists
longer than one minute after burst. See also contamination; induced radiation;
initial radiation. (JP 3-11)

residual radioactivity — Nuclear radiation that results from radioactive sources and
persists for longer than one minute. Sources of residual radioactivity created by nuclear
explosions include fission fragments and radioactive matter created primarily by
neutron activation, but may also be created by gamma and other radiation activation.
Other possible sources of residual radioactivity include radioactive material created and
dispersed by means other than nuclear explosion. See also contamination; induced
radiation; initial radiation.

resistance movement — An organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a
country to resist the legally established government or an occupying power and to
disrupt civil order and stability.

resolution — 1. A measurement of the smallest detail that can be distinguished by a sensor
system under specific conditions. 2. A formal expression of an official body such as
Congress, the United Nations Security Council, or North Atlantic Treaty Organization
North Atlantic Committee that may provide the basis for or set limits on a military

resource management — A financial management function which includes providing
advice and guidance to the commander, developing command resource requirements,
identifying sources of funding, determining cost, acquiring funds, distributing and
controlling funds, tracking costs and obligations, cost capturing and reimbursement
procedures, providing accounting support, and establishing a management internal
control process. Also called RM. See also financial management. (JP 1-06)

resources — The forces, materiel, and other assets or capabilities apportioned or allocated
to the commander of a unified or specified command.

response force — A mobile force with appropriate fire support designated, usually by the
area commander, to deal with Level II threats in the rear area. Also called RF.
(JP 3-10)

responsibility — 1. The obligation to carry forward an assigned task to a successful
conclusion. With responsibility goes authority to direct and take the necessary action to
ensure success. 2. The obligation for the proper custody, care, and safekeeping of
property or funds entrusted to the possession or supervision of an individual. See also

responsor — (*) An electronic device used to receive an electronic challenge and display a
reply thereto.

rest and recuperation — The withdrawal of individuals from combat or duty in a combat
area for short periods of rest and recuperation. Also called R&R. See also

restitution — (*) The process of determining the true planimetric position of objects whose
images appear on photographs.

restitution factor — See correlation factor.

restraint — In the context of joint operation planning, a requirement placed on the
command by a higher command that prohibits an action, thus restricting freedom of
action. See also constraint; operational limitation. (JP 5-0)

restraint of loads — The process of binding, lashing, and wedging items into one unit or
into its transporter in a manner that will ensure immobility during transit.

restricted area — 1. An area (land, sea, or air) in which there are special restrictive
measures employed to prevent or minimize interference between friendly forces. 2.
An area under military jurisdiction in which special security measures are employed to
prevent unauthorized entry. See also air surface zone; controlled firing area;
restricted areas (air).

restricted areas (air) — Designated areas established by appropriate authority over which
flight of aircraft is restricted. They are shown on aeronautical charts, published in
notices to airmen, and provided in publications of aids to air navigation. See also
restricted area.

restricted dangerous air cargo — (*) Cargo which does not belong to the highly
dangerous category but which is hazardous and requires, for transport by cargo or
passenger aircraft, extra precautions in packing and handling.

restricted data — All data (information) concerning: a. design, manufacture, or use of
atomic weapons; b. the production of special nuclear material; or c. the use of special
nuclear material in the production of energy, but shall not include data declassified or
removed from the restricted data category pursuant to Section 142 of the Atomic
Energy Act. (Section 11w, Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended.) See also
formerly restricted data.

restricted items list — A document listing those logistic goods and services for which
nations must coordinate any contracting activity with a commander’s centralized
contracting organization. (JP 4-08)

restricted operations area — (*) Airspace of defined dimensions, designated by the
airspace control authority, in response to specific operational situations/requirements
within which the operation of one or more airspace users is restricted. Also called
ROA. (JP 3-52)

restricted target list — A list of restricted targets nominated by elements of the joint force
and approved by the joint force commander. This list also includes restricted targets
directed by higher authorities. Also called RTL. See also restricted target; target.
(JP 3-60)

restricted target — A valid target that has specific restrictions placed on the actions
authorized against it due to operational considerations. See also target. (JP 3-60)

restrictive fire area — An area in which specific restrictions are imposed and into which
fires that exceed those restrictions will not be delivered without coordination with the
establishing headquarters. Also called RFA. See also fires. (JP 3-09)

restrictive fire line — A line established between converging friendly surface forces that
prohibits fires or their effects across that line. Also called RFL. See also fires.
(JP 3-09)

restrictive fire plan — (*) A safety measure for friendly aircraft which establishes airspace
that is reasonably safe from friendly surface delivered non-nuclear fires.

resupply — (*) The act of replenishing stocks in order to maintain required levels of
supply. (JP 4-09)

resuscitative care — Advanced emergency medical treatment required to prevent
immediate loss of life or limb and to attain stabilization to ensure the patient could
tolerate evacuation. (JP 4-02)

retained personnel — Enemy medical personnel and medical staff administrators who are
engaged in either the search for, collection, transport, or treatment of the wounded or
sick, or the prevention of disease; chaplains attached to enemy armed forces; and, staff
of National Red Cross Societies and that of other volunteer aid societies, duly
recognized and authorized by their governments to assist medical service personnel of
their own armed forces, provided they are exclusively engaged in the search for, or the
collection, transport or treatment of wounded or sick, or in the prevention of disease,
and provided that the staff of such societies are subject to military laws and regulations.
Also called RP. See also personnel. (JP 3-63)

reticle — (*) A mark such as a cross or a system of lines lying in the image plane of a
viewing apparatus. It may be used singly as a reference mark on certain types of
monocular instruments or as one of a pair to form a floating mark as in certain types of
stereoscopes. See also graticule.

Retired Reserve — All Reserve members who receive retirement pay on the basis of their
active duty and/or Reserve service; those members who are otherwise eligible for
retirement pay but have not reached age 60 and who have not elected discharge and are
not voluntary members of the Ready or Standby Reserve. See also active duty; Ready
Reserve; Standby Reserve. (JP 4-05)

retirement — (*) An operation in which a force out of contact moves away from the

retrofit action — Action taken to modify inservice equipment.

retrograde cargo — Cargo evacuated from a theater.

retrograde movement — Any movement of a command to the rear, or away from the
enemy. It may be forced by the enemy or may be made voluntarily. Such movements
may be classified as withdrawal, retirement, or delaying action.

retrograde operation — See retrograde movement.

retrograde personnel — Personnel evacuated from a theater who may include medical
patients, noncombatants, and civilians.

returned to military control — The status of a person whose casualty status of “duty status
- whereabouts unknown” or “missing” has been changed due to the person’s return or
recovery by US military authority. Also called RMC. See also casualty status; duty
status - whereabouts unknown; missing.

returnee — A displaced person who has returned voluntarily to his or her former place of
residence. (JP 3-29)

return load — (*) Personnel and/or cargo to be transported by a returning carrier.

return to base — An order to proceed to the point indicated by the displayed information or
by verbal communication. This point is being used to return the aircraft to a place at
which the aircraft can land. Command heading, speed, and altitude may be used, if
desired. Also called RTB.

revolving fund — A fund established to finance a cycle of operations to which
reimbursements and collections are returned for reuse in a manner such as will maintain
the principal of the fund, e.g., working capital funds, industrial funds, and loan funds.
(JP 1-06)

right (left) bank — See left (right) bank.

right (or left) — See left (or right).

riot control agent — Any chemical, not listed in a schedule of the Convention on the
Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical
Weapons and on their Destruction which can produce rapidly in humans sensory
irritation or disabling physical effects which disappear within a short time following
termination of exposure. Also called RCA. See also chemical warfare. (JP 3-11)

riot control operations — The employment of riot control agents and/or special tactics,
formations, and equipment in the control of violent disorders.

rising mine — (*) In naval mine warfare, a mine having positive buoyancy which is
released from a sinker by a ship influence or by a timing device. The mine may fire by
contact, hydrostatic pressure, or other means.

risk — 1. Probability and severity of loss linked to hazards. 2. See degree of risk. See also
hazard; risk management. (JP 3-33)

risk assessment — The identification and assessment of hazards (first two steps of risk
management process).

risk management — The process of identifying, assessing, and controlling risks arising
from operational factors and making decisions that balance risk cost with mission
benefits. Also called RM. See also risk. (JP 2-0)

riverine area — An inland or coastal area comprising both land and water, characterized by
limited land lines of communication, with extensive water surface and/or inland
waterways that provide natural routes for surface transportation and communications.

riverine operations — Operations conducted by forces organized to cope with and exploit
the unique characteristics of a riverine area, to locate and destroy hostile forces, and/or
to achieve or maintain control of the riverine area. Joint riverine operations combine
land, naval, and air operations, as appropriate, and are suited to the nature of the
specific riverine area in which operations are to be conducted.

road block — (*) A barrier or obstacle (usually covered by fire) used to block or limit the
movement of hostile vehicles along a route.

road capacity — The maximum traffic flow obtainable on a given roadway using all
available lanes; usually expressed in vehicles per hour or vehicles per day.

road clearance time — (*) The total time a column requires to travel over and clear a
section of the road.

road hazard sign — (*) A sign used to indicate traffic hazards. Military hazard signs
should be used in a communications zone area only in accordance with existing
agreements with national authorities.

road net — The system of roads available within a particular locality or area.

road space — (*) The length of roadway allocated to and/or actually occupied by a column
on a route, expressed in miles or kilometers.

rocket propulsion — Reaction propulsion wherein both the fuel and the oxidizer,
generating the hot gases expended through a nozzle, are carried as part of the rocket
engine. Specifically, rocket propulsion differs from jet propulsion in that jet propulsion
utilizes atmospheric air as an oxidizer, whereas rocket propulsion utilizes nitric acid or
a similar compound as an oxidizer. See also jet propulsion.

roentgen — (*) A unit of exposure dose of gamma (or X-) radiation. In field dosimetry,
one roentgen is essentially equal to one rad.

roentgen equivalent mammal — One roentgen equivalent mammal is the quantity of
ionizing radiation of any type which, when absorbed by man or other mammal,
produces a physiological effect equivalent to that produced by the absorption of 1
roentgen of X-ray or gamma radiation. Also called REM.

role number — (*) In the medical field, the classification of treatment facilities according
to their different capabilities.

role specialist nation — A nation that has agreed to assume responsibility for providing a
particular class of supply or service for all or part of the multinational force. Also
called RSN. See also lead nation; multinational force. (JP 4-08)

roll back — The process of progressive destruction and/or neutralization of the opposing
defenses, starting at the periphery and working inward, to permit deeper penetration of
succeeding defense positions.

roll-in-point — The point at which aircraft enter the final leg of the attack, e.g., dive, glide.

roll-on/roll-off discharge facility — Provides a means of disembarking vehicles from a
roll-on and roll-off ship to lighterage. The roll-on/roll-off discharge facility consists of
six causeway sections, nonpowered assembled into a platform that is two sections long
and three sections wide. When use of landing craft, utility, as lighters, is being
considered, a seventh “sea end” causeway section, non-powered, fitted with a rhino
horn, is required. The roll-on/roll-off discharge facility assembly includes fendering,
lighting, and a ramp for vehicle movement from ship to the platform. Also called
RRDF. See also facility; lighterage. (JP 4-01.6)

roll-up — The process for orderly dismantling of facilities no longer required in support of
operations and available for transfer to other areas.

romper — (*) A ship which has moved more than 10 nautical miles ahead of its convoy,
and is unable to rejoin it. See also straggler.

rope — (*) An element of chaff consisting of a long roll of metallic foil or wire which is
designed for broad, low-frequency responses. See also chaff.

rough terrain container handler — A piece of materials handling equipment used to pick
up and move containers. Also called RTCH. See also materials handling
equipment. (JP 4-01.6)

route — (*) The prescribed course to be traveled from a specific point of origin to a
specific destination. See also axial route; controlled route; dispatch route; lateral
route; reserved route; signed route; supervised route.

route capacity — (*) 1. The maximum traffic flow of vehicles in one direction at the most
restricted point on the route. 2. The maximum number of metric tons which can be
moved in one direction over a particular route in one hour. It is the product of the
maximum traffic flow and the average payload of the vehicles using the route. See also
railway line capacity.

route classification — (*) Classification assigned to a route using factors of minimum
width, worst route type, least bridge, raft, or culvert military load classification, and
obstructions to traffic flow. See also military load classification.

route lanes — (*) A series of parallel tracks for the routing of independently sailed ships.

routine message — A category of precedence to be used for all types of messages that
justify transmission by rapid means unless of sufficient urgency to require a higher
precedence. See also precedence.

routine supplies — Those items delivered as a result of normal requisitioning procedures to
replace expended supplies or to build up reserve stocks. See also follow-up supplies;
supplies. (JP 3-17)

routing indicator — A group of letters assigned to indicate: a. the geographic location of a
station; b. a fixed headquarters of a command, activity, or unit at a geographic
location; and c. the general location of a tape relay or tributary station to facilitate the
routing of traffic over the tape relay networks.

row marker — (*) In land mine warfare, a natural, artificial, or specially installed marker,
located at the start or finish of a mine row where mines are laid by individual rows. See
also marker.

rules for the use of force — Directives issued to guide United States forces on the use of
force during various operations. These directives may take the form of execute orders,
deployment orders, memoranda of agreement, or plans. Also called RUF. (JP 3-28)

rules of engagement — Directives issued by competent military authority that delineate the
circumstances and limitations under which United States forces will initiate and/or
continue combat engagement with other forces encountered. Also called ROE. See
also law of war.

run — 1. That part of a flight of one photographic reconnaissance aircraft during which
photographs are taken. 2. The transit of a sweeper-sweep combination or of a
mine-hunter operating its equipment through a lap. This term may also be applied to a
transit of any formation of sweepers.

runway visual range — (*) The maximum distance in the direction of takeoff or landing at
which the runway, or specified lights or markers delineating it, can be seen from a
position above a specified point on its center line at a height corresponding to the
average eye level of pilots at touch-down.

rupture zone — (*) The region immediately adjacent to the crater boundary in which the
stresses produced by the explosion have exceeded the ultimate strength of the medium.
It is characterized by the appearance of numerous radial cracks of various sizes. See
also plastic zone.

ruse — In military deception, a trick of war designed to deceive the adversary, usually
involving the deliberate exposure of false information to the adversary’s intelligence
collection system. (JP 3-13.4)



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