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Military Terms and Definitions

table of allowance — An equipment allowance document that prescribes basic allowances
of organizational equipment, and provides the control to develop, revise, or change
equipment authorization inventory data. Also called TOA.

TABOO frequencies — Any friendly frequency of such importance that it must never be
deliberately jammed or interfered with by friendly forces. Normally, these frequencies
include international distress, CEASE BUZZER, safety, and controller frequencies.
These frequencies are generally long standing. However, they may be time-oriented in
that, as the combat or exercise situation changes, the restrictions may be removed. See
also electronic warfare. (JP 3-13.1)

tacit arms control agreement — An arms control course of action in which two or more
nations participate without any formal agreement having been made.

tactical aeromedical evacuation — (*) That phase of evacuation which provides airlift
for patients from the combat zone to points outside the combat zone, and between
points within the communications zone. (JP 4-02)

tactical air command center — The principal US Marine Corps air command and control
agency from which air operations and air defense warning functions are directed. It is
the senior agency of the US Marine air command and control system that serves as the
operational command post of the aviation combat element commander. It provides the
facility from which the aviation combat element commander and his battle staff plan,
supervise, coordinate, and execute all current and future air operations in support of the
Marine air-ground task force. The tactical air command center can provide integration,
coordination, and direction of joint and combined air operations. Also called Marine
TACC. (JP 3-09.3)

tactical air commander (ashore) — The officer (aviator) responsible to the landing force
commander for control and coordination of air operations within the landing force
commander’s area of operations when control of these operations is passed ashore.

tactical air control center — The principal air operations installation (ship-based) from
which all aircraft and air warning functions of tactical air operations are controlled.
Also called Navy TACC. (JP 3-09.3)

tactical air control party — A subordinate operational component of a tactical air control
system designed to provide air liaison to land forces and for the control of aircraft.
Also called TACP. (JP 3-09.3)

tactical air coordinator (airborne) — An officer who coordinates, from an aircraft, the
actions of other aircraft engaged in air support of ground or sea forces. Also called
TAC(A). See also forward observer.

tactical air direction center — An air operations installation under the overall control of
the Navy tactical air control center (afloat)/Marine Corps tactical air command center,
from which aircraft and air warning service functions of tactical air operations in
support of amphibious operations are directed. Also called TADC. (JP 3-09.3)

tactical airfield fuel dispensing system — A tactical aircraft refueling system deployed by
a Marine air-ground task force in support of air operations at an expeditionary airfield
or a forward arming and refueling point. Also called TAFDS.

tactical air groups (shore-based) — Task organizations of tactical air units assigned to the
amphibious task force that are to be land-based within, or sufficiently close to, the
objective area to provide tactical air support to the amphibious task force. (JP 3-02)

tactical air officer (afloat) — The officer (aviator) under the amphibious task force
commander who coordinates planning of all phases of air participation of the
amphibious operation and air operations of supporting forces en route to and in the
objective area. Until control is passed ashore, this officer exercises control over all
operations of the tactical air control center (afloat) and is charged with the following: a.
control of all aircraft in the objective area assigned for tactical air operations, including
offensive and defensive air; b. control of all other aircraft entering or passing through
the objective area; and c. control of all air warning facilities in the objective area.

tactical air operation — An air operation involving the employment of air power in
coordination with ground or naval forces to: a. gain and maintain air superiority; b.
prevent movement of enemy forces into and within the objective area and to seek out
and destroy these forces and their supporting installations; c. join with ground or naval
forces in operations within the objective area, in order to assist directly in attainment of
their immediate objective.

tactical air operations center — The principal air control agency of the US Marine air
command and control system responsible for airspace control and management. It
provides real-time surveillance, direction, positive control, and navigational assistance
for friendly aircraft. It performs real-time direction and control of all antiair warfare
operations, to include manned interceptors and surface-to-air weapons. It is
subordinate to the tactical air command center. Also called TAOC. (JP 3-09.3)

tactical air reconnaissance — The use of air vehicles to obtain information concerning
terrain, weather, and the disposition, composition, movement, installations, lines of
communications, electronic and communication emissions of enemy forces. Also
included are artillery and naval gunfire adjustment, and systematic and random
observation of ground battle areas, targets, and/or sectors of airspace.

tactical air support — (*) Air operations carried out in coordination with surface forces
and which directly assist land or maritime operations. See also air support.

tactical air support element — An element of a US Army division, corps, or field army
tactical operations center consisting of Army component intelligence staff officer and
Army component operations staff officer air personnel who coordinate and integrate
tactical air support with current tactical ground operations.

tactical air transport operations — (*) The carriage of passengers and cargo within a
theater by means of: a. airborne operations: (1) parachute assault, (2) helicopterborne
assault, (3) air landing; b. air logistic support; c. special missions; d. aeromedical
evacuation missions. (JP 4-02)

tactical assembly area — An area that is generally out of the reach of light artillery and the
location where units make final preparations (pre-combat checks and inspections) and
rest, prior to moving to the line of departure. See also assembly area; line of
departure. (JP 3-35)

tactical call sign — (*) A call sign which identifies a tactical command or tactical
communication facility. See also call sign.

tactical combat force — A combat unit, with appropriate combat support and combat
service support assets, that is assigned the mission of defeating Level III threats. Also
called TCF. (JP 3-10)

tactical concept — (*) A statement, in broad outline, which provides a common basis for
future development of tactical doctrine. See also tactical sub-concept.

tactical control — Command authority over assigned or attached forces or commands, or
military capability or forces made available for tasking, that is limited to the detailed
direction and control of movements or maneuvers within the operational area necessary
to accomplish missions or tasks assigned. Tactical control is inherent in operational
control. Tactical control may be delegated to, and exercised at any level at or below the
level of combatant command. Tactical control provides sufficient authority for
controlling and directing the application of force or tactical use of combat support
assets within the assigned mission or task. Also called TACON. See also combatant
command; combatant command (command authority); operational control. (JP 1)

tactical deception group — A task organization that conducts deception operations against
the enemy, including electronic, communication, visual, and other methods designed to
misinform and confuse the enemy. (JP 3-02)

tactical digital information link — A Joint Staff-approved, standardized communication
link suitable for transmission of digital information. Tactical digital information links
interface two or more command and control or weapons systems via a single or
multiple network architecture and multiple communication media for exchange of
tactical information. Also called TADIL.

tactical diversion — See diversion.

tactical exploitation of national capabilities — Congressionally mandated program to
improve the combat effectiveness of the Services through more effective military use of
national programs. Also called TENCAP.

tactical information processing and interpretation system — A tactical, mobile,
land-based, automated information-handling system designed to store and retrieve
intelligence information and to process and interpret imagery or nonimagery data. Also
called TIPI.

tactical intelligence — Intelligence required for the planning and conduct of tactical
operations. See also intelligence. (JP 2-01.2)

tactical intelligence and related activities — Those activities outside the National Foreign
Intelligence Program that accomplish the following: a. respond to operational
commanders’ tasking for time-sensitive information on foreign entities; b. respond to
national intelligence community tasking of systems whose primary mission is support
to operating forces; c. train personnel for intelligence duties; d. provide an intelligence
reserve; or e. are devoted to research and development of intelligence or related
capabilities. Specifically excluded are programs that are so closely integrated with a
weapon system that their primary function is to provide immediate-use targeting data.
Also called TIARA.

tactical level of war — The level of war at which battles and engagements are planned and
executed to achieve military objectives assigned to tactical units or task forces.
Activities at this level focus on the ordered arrangement and maneuver of combat
elements in relation to each other and to the enemy to achieve combat objectives. See
also operational level of war; strategic level of war. (JP 3-0)

tactical loading — See combat loading; unit loading.

tactical locality — (*) An area of terrain which, because of its location or features,
possesses a tactical significance in the particular circumstances existing at a particular

tactical-logistical group — Representatives designated by troop commanders to assist
Navy control officers aboard control ships in the ship-to-shore movement of troops,
equipment, and supplies. Also called TACLOG group.

tactical map — A large-scale map used for tactical and administrative purposes. See also

tactical minefield — A minefield that is employed to directly attack enemy maneuver as
part of a formation obstacle plan and is laid to delay, channel, or break up an enemy
advance, giving the defending element a positional advantage over the attacker.

tactical mining — (*) In naval mine warfare, mining designed to influence a specific
operation or to counter a known or presumed tactical aim of the enemy. Implicit in
tactical mining is a limited period of effectiveness of the minefield.

tactical nuclear weapon employment — The use of nuclear weapons by land, sea, or air
forces against opposing forces, supporting installations or facilities, in support of
operations that contribute to the accomplishment of a military mission of limited scope,
or in support of the military commander’s scheme of maneuver, usually limited to the
area of military operations.

tactical obstacles — Those obstacles employed to disrupt enemy formations, to turn them
into a desired area, to fix them in position under direct and indirect fires, and to block
enemy penetrations. (JP 3-15)

tactical operations center — A physical groupment of those elements of a general and
special staff concerned with the current tactical operations and the tactical support
thereof. Also called TOC. See also command post.

tactical questioning — Direct questioning by any Department of Defense personnel of a
captured or detained person to obtain time-sensitive tactical intelligence information, at
or near the point of capture or detention and consistent with applicable law. Also called
TQ. (JP 3-63)

tactical range — (*) A range in which realistic targets are in use and a certain freedom of
maneuver is allowed.

tactical recovery of aircraft and personnel — A Marine Corps mission performed by an
assigned and briefed aircrew for the specific purpose of the recovery of personnel,
equipment, and/or aircraft when the tactical situation precludes search and rescue assets
from responding and when survivors and their location have been confirmed. Also
called TRAP. (JP 3-50)

tactical reserve — A part of a force held under the control of the commander as a
maneuvering force to influence future action.

tactical security — (*) In operations, the measures necessary to deny information to the
enemy and to ensure that a force retains its freedom of action and is warned or
protected against an unexpected encounter with the enemy or an attack. See also
physical security; security. (JP 3-07.2)

tactical sub-concept — (*) A statement, in broad outline, for a specific field of military
capability within a tactical concept which provides a common basis both for equipment
and weapon system development and for future development of tactical doctrine. See
also tactical concept.

tactical transport aircraft — (*) Aircraft designed primarily for the carriage of personnel
and/or cargo over short or medium distances.

tactical troops — Combat troops, together with any service troops required for their direct
support, who are organized under one commander to operate as a unit and engage the
enemy in combat. See also troops.

tactical unit — An organization of troops, aircraft, or ships that is intended to serve as a
single unit in combat. It may include service units required for its direct support.

tactical vehicle — See military designed vehicle.

tactical warning — 1. A warning after initiation of a threatening or hostile act based on an
evaluation of information from all available sources. 2. In satellite and missile
surveillance, a notification to operational command centers that a specific threat event
is occurring. The component elements that describe threat events are as follows: a.
country of origin — Country or countries initiating hostilities; b. event type and size
— Identification of the type of event and determination of the size or number of
weapons; c. country under attack — Determined by observing trajectory of an
object and predicting its impact point; and d. event time — Time the hostile event
occurred. Also called integrated tactical warning. See also attack assessment;
strategic warning.

tactical warning and assessment — A composite term. See separate definitions for
tactical warning and for attack assessment.

tactical warning and attack assessment — A composite term. See separate definitions for
tactical warning and for attack assessment. Also called TW/AA.

tactics — The employment and ordered arrangement of forces in relation to each other. See
also procedures; techniques. (CJCSI 5120.02)

tagline — A line attached to a draft of cargo or container to provide control and minimize
pendulation of cargo during lifting operations. See also container; draft. (JP 4-01.6)

Tanker Airlift Control Center — The Air Mobility Command direct reporting unit
responsible for tasking and controlling operational missions for all activities involving
forces supporting US Transportation Command’s global air mobility mission. The
Tanker Airlift Control Center is comprised of the following functions: current
operations, command and control, logistic operations, aerial port operations,
aeromedical evacuation, flight planning, diplomatic clearances, and weather. Also
called TACC. See also Air Mobility Command; tanker airlift control element.
(JP 3-17)

tanker airlift control element — A mobile command and control organization deployed to
support intertheater and intratheater air mobility operations at fixed, en route, and
deployed locations where air mobility operational support is nonexistent or insufficient.
The tanker airlift control element (TALCE) provides on-site management of air
mobility airfield operations to include command and control, communications, aerial
port services, maintenance, security, transportation, weather, intelligence, and other
support functions, as necessary. The TALCE is composed of mission support elements
from various units and deploys in support of peacetime, contingency, and emergency
relief operations on both planned and “no notice” basis. Also called TALCE. See also
air mobility; Tanker Airlift Control Center. (JP 3-17)

tare weight — The weight of a container deducted from gross weight to obtain net weight
or the weight of an empty container. (JP 4-01.7)

target — 1. An entity or object considered for possible engagement or other action. 2. In
intelligence usage, a country, area, installation, agency, or person against which
intelligence operations are directed. 3. An area designated and numbered for future
firing. 4. In gunfire support usage, an impact burst that hits the target. See also
objective area. (JP 3-60)

target acquisition — (*) The detection, identification, and location of a target in sufficient
detail to permit the effective employment of weapons. Also called TA. See also target
analysis. (JP 3-60)

target analysis — (*) An examination of potential targets to determine military
importance, priority of attack, and weapons required to obtain a desired level of
damage or casualties. See also target acquisition. (JP 3-60)

target approach point — (*) In air transport operations, a navigational check point over
which the final turn into the drop zone/landing zone is made. See also initial point.

target area of interest — The geographical area where high-value targets can be acquired
and engaged by friendly forces. Not all target areas of interest will form part of the
friendly course of action; only target areas of interest associated with high priority
targets are of interest to the staff. These are identified during staff planning and
wargaming. Target areas of interest differ from engagement areas in degree.
Engagement areas plan for the use of all available weapons; target areas of interest
might be engaged by a single weapon. Also called TAI. See also area of interest;
high-value target; target. (JP 2-01.3)

target area survey base — (*) A base line used for the locating of targets or other points
by the intersection of observations from two stations located at opposite ends on the

target array — A graphic representation of enemy forces, personnel, and facilities in a
specific situation, accompanied by a target analysis.

target audience — An individual or group selected for influence. Also called TA.
(JP 3-13)

target base line — A line connecting prime targets along the periphery of a geographic

target bearing — 1. true — The true compass bearing of a target from a firing ship. 2.
relative — The bearing of a target measured in the horizontal from the bow of one’s
own ship clockwise from 0 degrees to 360 degrees, or from the nose of one’s own
aircraft in hours of the clock.

target classification — A grouping of targets in accordance with their threat to the
amphibious task force and its component elements: targets not to be fired upon prior to
D-day and targets not to be destroyed except on direct orders.

target complex — (*) A geographically integrated series of target concentrations. See also
target. (JP 3-60)

target component — A set of targets within a target system performing a similar function.
See also target; target critical damage point. (JP 3-60)

target concentration — (*) A grouping of geographically proximate targets. See also
target; target complex. (JP 3-60)

target critical damage point — The part of a target component that is most vital. Also
called critical node. See also target; target component. (JP 3-05.1)

target data inventory — A basic targeting program that provides a standardized target data
in support of the requirements of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Military Departments, and
unified and specified commands for target planning coordination and weapons
application. Also called TDI.

target date — (*) The date on which it is desired that an action be accomplished or

target development — The systematic examination of potential target systems - and their
components, individual targets, and even elements of targets - to determine the
necessary type and duration of the action that must be exerted on each target to create
an effect that is consistent with the commander’s specific objectives. (JP 3-60)

target discrimination — (*) The ability of a surveillance or guidance system to identify or
engage any one target when multiple targets are present.

target dossier — (*) A file of assembled target intelligence about a specific geographic

target folder — A folder, hardcopy or electronic, containing target intelligence and related
materials prepared for planning and executing action against a specific target. See also
target. (JP 3-60)

target information center — The agency or activity responsible for collecting, displaying,
evaluating, and disseminating information pertaining to potential targets. See also
target. (JP 3-02)

targeting — The process of selecting and prioritizing targets and matching the appropriate
response to them, considering operational requirements and capabilities. See also joint
targeting coordination board; target. (JP 3-0)

target intelligence — Intelligence that portrays and locates the components of a target or
target complex and indicates its vulnerability and relative importance. See also target;
target complex. (JP 3-60)

target materials — Graphic, textual, tabular, digital, video, or other presentations of target
intelligence, primarily designed to support operations against designated targets by one
or more weapon(s) systems. Target materials are suitable for training, planning,
executing, and evaluating military operations. See also Air Target Materials
Program. (JP 2-0)

target nomination list — A target-consolidated list of targets made up of the multiple
candidate target lists. A prioritized list of targets drawn from the joint target list and
nominated by component commanders, appropriate agencies, or the joint force
commander’s staff for inclusion on the joint integrated prioritized target list. Also
called TNL. See also candidate target list; joint integrated prioritized target list;
target. (JP 3-60)

target of opportunity — (1) A target identified too late, or not selected for action in time,
to be included in deliberate targeting that, when detected or located, meets criteria
specific to achieving objectives and is processed using dynamic targeting. There are
two types of targets of opportunity: unplanned and unanticipated. (2) A target visible to
a surface or air sensor or observer, which is within range of available weapons and
against which fire has not been scheduled or requested. See also dynamic targeting;
target; unplanned target; unanticipated target. (JP 3-60)

target overlay — (*) A transparent sheet which, when superimposed on a particular chart,
map, drawing, tracing or other representation, depicts target locations and designations.
The target overlay may also show boundaries between maneuver elements, objectives
and friendly forward dispositions.

target pattern — The flight path of aircraft during the attack phase. Also called attack

target priority — A grouping of targets with the indicated sequence of attack.

target range — See range.

target response (nuclear) — The effect on men, material, and equipment of blast, heat,
light, and nuclear radiation resulting from the explosion of a nuclear weapon.

target signature — (*) 1. The characteristic pattern of a target displayed by detection and
identification equipment. 2. In naval mine warfare, the variation in the influence field
produced by the passage of a ship or sweep. (JP 3-60)

target stress point — The weakest point (most vulnerable to damage) on the critical
damage point. Also called vulnerable node. See also target critical damage point.
(JP 3-05.1)

target system — (*) 1. All the targets situated in a particular geographic area and
functionally related. 2. (DOD only) A group of targets that are so related that their
destruction will produce some particular effect desired by the attacker. See also target;
target complex. (JP 3-60)

target system analysis — An all-source examination of potential target systems to
determine relevance to stated objectives, military importance, and priority of attack. It
is an open-ended analytic process produced through the intelligence production process
using national and theater validated requirements as a foundation. Also called TSA.
(JP 3-60)

target system assessment — The broad assessment of the overall impact and effectiveness
of the full spectrum of military force applied against the operation of an enemy target
system or total combat effectiveness (including significant subdivisions of the system)
relative to the operational objectives established. See also target system. (JP 3-60)

target system component — A set of targets belonging to one or more groups of industries
and basic utilities required to produce component parts of an end product, or one type
of a series of interrelated commodities. (JP 3-60)

task component — A subdivision of a fleet, task force, task group, or task unit, organized
by the respective commander or by higher authority for the accomplishment of specific

task element — A component of a naval task unit organized by the commander of a task
unit or higher authority.

task force — (*) 1. A temporary grouping of units, under one commander, formed for the
purpose of carrying out a specific operation or mission. 2. A semi-permanent
organization of units, under one commander, formed for the purpose of carrying out a
continuing specific task. 3. A component of a fleet organized by the commander of a
task fleet or higher authority for the accomplishment of a specific task or tasks. Also
called TF. See also force.

task group — A component of a naval task force organized by the commander of a task
force or higher authority. Also called TG.

tasking order — A method used to task and to disseminate to components, subordinate
units, and command and control agencies projected targets and specific missions. In
addition, the tasking order provides specific instructions concerning the mission
planning agent, targets, and other control agencies, as well as general instructions for
accomplishment of the mission. Also called TASKORD. See also mission; order;
target. (JP 3-05.1)

task order — Order for services placed against an established contract. See also civil
augmentation program; cost-plus award fee contract. (JP 4-10)

task organization — 1. In the Navy, an organization which assigns to responsible
commanders the means with which to accomplish their assigned tasks in any planned
action. 2. An organization table pertaining to a specific naval directive.

task-organizing — The act of designing an operating force, support staff, or logistic
package of specific size and composition to meet a unique task or mission.
Characteristics to examine when task-organizing the force include, but are not limited
to: training, experience, equipage, sustainability, operating environment, enemy threat,
and mobility. (JP 3-05)

task unit — A component of a naval task group organized by the commander of a task
group or higher authority.

taxiway — (*) A specially prepared or designated path on an airfield for the use of taxiing

T-day — See times.

tear line — A physical line on an intelligence message or document separating categories of
information that have been approved for foreign disclosure and release. Normally, the
intelligence below the tear line is that which has been previously cleared for disclosure
or release. (JP 2-0)

technical analysis — (*) In imagery interpretation, the precise description of details
appearing on imagery.

technical architecture — A minimal set of rules governing the arrangement, interaction,
and interdependence of the parts or elements whose purpose is to ensure that a
conformant system satisfies a specified set of requirements.

technical assistance — The providing of advice, assistance, and training pertaining to the
installation, operation, and maintenance of equipment.

technical characteristics — Those characteristics of equipment that pertain primarily to the
engineering principles involved in producing equipment possessing desired military
characteristics; e.g., for electronic equipment, technical characteristics include such
items as circuitry as well as types and arrangement of components.

technical documentation — Visual information documentation (with or without sound as
an integral documentation component) of an actual event made for purposes of
evaluation. Typically, technical documentation contributes to the study of human or
mechanical factors, procedures, and processes in the fields of medicine, science,
logistics, research, development, test and evaluation, intelligence, investigations, and
armament delivery. Also called TECDOC. See also visual information

technical escort — An individual technically qualified and properly equipped to
accompany designated material requiring a high degree of safety or security during

technical evaluation — The study and investigations by a developing agency to determine
the technical suitability of material, equipment, or a system for use in the Military
Services. See also operational evaluation.

technical information — Information, including scientific information, that relates to
research, development, engineering, test, evaluation, production, operation, use, and
maintenance of munitions and other military supplies and equipment.

technical intelligence — Intelligence derived from the collection, processing, analysis, and
exploitation of data and information pertaining to foreign equipment and materiel for
the purposes of preventing technological surprise, assessing foreign scientific and
technical capabilities, and developing countermeasures designed to neutralize an
adversary’s technological advantages. Also called TECHINT. See also exploitation;
intelligence. (JP 2-0)

technical operational intelligence — A Defense Intelligence Agency initiative to provide
enhanced scientific and technical intelligence to the commanders of unified commands
and their subordinates through a closed loop system involving all Service and Defense
Intelligence Agency scientific and technical intelligence centers. Through a system
manager in the National Military Joint Intelligence Center, the technical operational
intelligence program provides timely collection, analysis, and dissemination of area of
responsibility-specific scientific and technical intelligence to combatant commanders
and their subordinates for planning, training, and executing joint operations. Also
called TOPINT. (JP 2-0)

technical review authority — The organization tasked to provide specialized technical or
administrative expertise to the primary review authority or coordinating review
authority for joint publications. Also called TRA. See also coordinating review
authority; joint publication; primary review authority. (CJCSI 5120.02A)

technical specification — A detailed description of technical requirements, usually with
specific acceptance criteria, stated in terms suitable to form the basis for the actual
design development and production processes of an item having the qualities specified
in the operational characteristics. See also operational characteristics.

technical supply operations — Operations performed by supply units or technical supply
elements of supply and maintenance units in acquiring, accounting for, storing, and
issuing Class II and IV items needed by supported units and maintenance activities.

technical surveillance countermeasures — Techniques and measures to detect and
neutralize a wide variety of hostile penetration technologies that are used to obtain
unauthorized access to classified and sensitive information. Technical penetrations
include the employment of optical, electro-optical, electromagnetic, fluidic, and
acoustic means as the sensor and transmission medium, or the use of various types of
stimulation or modification to equipment or building components for the direct or
indirect transmission of information meant to be protected. Also called TSCM. See
also counterintelligence. (JP 2-01.2)

technical survey — A complete electronic and physical inspection to ascertain that offices,
conference rooms, war rooms, and other similar locations where classified information
is discussed are free of monitoring systems. See also sweep.

techniques — Non-prescriptive ways or methods used to perform missions, functions, or
tasks. See also procedures; tactics. (CJCSI 5120.02)

telecommunication — (*) Any transmission, emission, or reception of signs, signals,
writings, images, sounds, or information of any nature by wire, radio, visual, or other
electromagnetic systems. (JP 6-0)

telecommunications center — A facility, normally serving more than one organization or
terminal, responsible for transmission, receipt, acceptance, processing, and distribution
of incoming and outgoing messages.

teleconference — (*) A conference between persons remote from one another but linked
by a telecommunications system.

telemedicine — Rapid access to shared and remote medical expertise by means of
telecommunications and information technologies to deliver health services and
exchange health information for the purpose of improving patient care. (JP 4-02)

teleprocessing — The combining of telecommunications and computer operations
interacting in the automatic processing, reception, and transmission of data and/or

television imagery — Imagery acquired by a television camera and recorded or transmitted

telling — See track telling.

temperature gradient — At sea, a temperature gradient is the change of temperature with
depth; a positive gradient is a temperature increase with an increase in depth, and a
negative gradient is a temperature decrease with an increase in depth.

tempest — An unclassified term referring to technical investigations for compromising
emanations from electrically operated information processing equipment; these
investigations are conducted in support of emanations and emissions security. See also
counterintelligence. (JP 2-01.2)

temporary interment — A site for the purpose of: a. the interment of the remains if the
circumstances permit; or b. the reburial of remains exhumed from an emergency
interment. See also emergency interment; mortuary affairs. (JP 4-06)

terminal — A facility designed to transfer cargo from one means of conveyance to another.
(Conveyance is the piece of equipment used to transport cargo; i.e., railcar to truck or
truck to truck. This is as opposed to mode, which is the type of equipment; i.e., ship to
rail, rail to truck.) See also facility. (JP 4-01.6)

terminal attack control — The authority to control the maneuver of and grant weapons
release clearance to attacking aircraft. See also joint terminal attack controller.
(JP 3-09.3)

terminal clearance capacity — The amount of cargo or personnel that can be moved
through and out of a terminal on a daily basis.

terminal control — 1. The authority to direct aircraft to maneuver into a position to deliver
ordnance, passengers, or cargo to a specific location or target. Terminal control is a
type of air control. 2. Any electronic, mechanical, or visual control given to aircraft to
facilitate target acquisition and resolution. See also terminal guidance. (JP 3-09.3)

terminal control area — A control area or portion thereof normally situated at the
confluence of air traffic service routes in the vicinity of one or more major airfields.
See also control area; controlled airspace; control zone.

terminal guidance — 1. The guidance applied to a guided missile between midcourse
guidance and arrival in the vicinity of the target. 2. Electronic, mechanical, visual, or
other assistance given an aircraft pilot to facilitate arrival at, operation within or over,
landing upon, or departure from an air landing or airdrop facility. See also terminal
control. (JP 3-03)

terminal guidance operations — Those actions that provide electronic, mechanical, voice
or visual communications that provide approaching aircraft and/or weapons additional
information regarding a specific target location. Also called TGO. (JP 3-09)

terminal operations — The reception, processing, and staging of passengers; the receipt,
transit, storage, and marshalling of cargo; the loading and unloading of modes of
transport conveyances; and the manifesting and forwarding of cargo and passengers to
destination. See also operation; terminal. (JP 4-01.5)

terminal phase — That portion of the flight of a ballistic missile that begins when the
warhead or payload reenters the atmosphere and ends when the warhead or payload
detonates or impacts. For ballistic missiles that do not exit the atmosphere, terminal
phase begins when the warhead or payload reaches apogee and ends when the warhead
or payload detonates or impacts. See also boost phase; midcourse phase. (JP 3-01)

terminal velocity — (*) 1. Hypothetical maximum speed a body could attain along a
specified flight path under given conditions of weight and thrust if diving through an
unlimited distance in air of specified uniform density. 2. Remaining speed of a
projectile at the point in its downward path where it is level with the muzzle of the

termination criteria — The specified standards approved by the President and/or the
Secretary of Defense that must be met before a joint operation can be concluded.
(JP 3-0)

terms of reference — 1. A mutual agreement under which a command, element, or unit
exercises authority or undertakes specific missions or tasks relative to another
command, element, or unit. 2. The directive providing the legitimacy and authority to
undertake a mission, task, or endeavor. Also called TORs. (JP 3-0)

terrain analysis — (*) The collection, analysis, evaluation, and interpretation of
geographic information on the natural and manmade features of the terrain, combined
with other relevant factors, to predict the effect of the terrain on military operations.

terrain avoidance system — (*) A system which provides the pilot or navigator of an
aircraft with a situation display of the ground or obstacles which project above either a
horizontal plane through the aircraft or a plane parallel to it, so that the pilot can
maneuver the aircraft to avoid the obstruction.

terrain clearance system — (*) A system which provides the pilot, or autopilot, of an
aircraft with climb or dive signals such that the aircraft will maintain a selected height
over flat ground and clear the peaks of undulating ground within the selected height in
a vertical plane through the flight vector. This system differs from terrain following in
that the aircraft need not descend into a valley to follow the ground contour.

terrain exercise — An exercise in which a stated military situation is solved on the ground,
the troops being imaginary and the solution usually being in writing.

terrain flight — (*) Flight close to the Earth’s surface during which airspeed, height,
and/or altitude are adapted to the contours and cover of the ground in order to avoid
enemy detection and fire. Also called TERF.

terrain following system — (*) A system which provides the pilot or autopilot of an
aircraft with climb or dive signals such that the aircraft will maintain as closely as
possible a selected height above a ground contour in a vertical plane through the flight

terrain intelligence — Intelligence on the military significance of natural and manmade
characteristics of an area.

terrain study — An analysis and interpretation of natural and manmade features of an area,
their effects on military operations, and the effect of weather and climate on these

terrestrial environment — The Earth’s land area, including its man-made and natural
surface and sub-surface features, and its interfaces and interactions with the atmosphere
and the oceans. (JP 3-14)

terrestrial reference guidance — The technique of providing intelligence to a missile from
certain characteristics of the surface over which the missile is flown, thereby achieving
flight along a predetermined path.

territorial airspace — Airspace above land territory, internal waters, archipelagic waters,
and territorial seas.

territorial sea — A belt of ocean space adjacent to and measured from the coastal state’s
baseline to a maximum width of 12 nm. Throughout the vertical and horizontal planes
of the territorial sea, the coastal state exercises sovereign jurisdiction, subject to the
right of innocent passage of vessels on the surface and the right of transit passage in,
under, and over international straits. Territorial sea areas that are a continuation of sea
lanes through archipelagoes are subject to archipelagic sealane passage, with the same
transit rights as those that apply to international straits.

terrorism — The calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to
inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the
pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological. See also
antiterrorism; combating terrorism; counterterrorism; force protection
condition; terrorist; terrorist groups. (JP 3-07.2)

terrorist — An individual who commits an act or acts of violence or threatens violence in
pursuit of political, religious, or ideological objectives. See also terrorism. (JP 3-07.2)

terrorist group — Any number of terrorists who assemble together, have a unifying
relationship, or are organized for the purpose of committing an act or acts of violence
or threatens violence in pursuit of their political, religious, or ideological objectives.
See also terrorism. (JP 3-07.2)

terrorist threat level — An intelligence threat assessment of the level of terrorist threat
faced by US personnel and interests in a foreign country. The assessment is based on a
continuous intelligence analysis of a minimum of five elements: terrorist group
existence, capability, history, trends, and targeting. There are five threat levels:
NEGLIGIBLE, LOW, MEDIUM, HIGH, and CRITICAL. Threat levels should not be
confused with force protection conditions. Threat level assessments are provided to
senior leaders to assist them in determining the appropriate local force protection
condition. (The Department of State also makes threat assessments, which may differ
from those determined by Department of Defense.) (JP 3-07.2)

test depth — (*) The depth to which the submarine is tested by actual or simulated
submergence. See also maximum operating depth.

tests — See service test; troop test.

theater — The geographical area for which a commander of a geographic combatant
command has been assigned responsibility. (JP 1)

theater airlift — See intratheater airlift. (JP 3-17)

theater antisubmarine warfare commander — A Navy commander assigned to develop
plans and direct assigned and attached assets for the conduct of antisubmarine warfare
within an operational area. Normally designated as a task force or task group
commander and responsible to a Navy component commander or joint force maritime
component commander. Also called TASWC. (JP 3-32 CH1)

theater-assigned transportation assets — Transportation assets that are assigned under the
combatant command (command authority) of a geographic combatant commander.
See also combatant command (command authority); single manager for
transportation. (JP 4-01)

theater detainee reporting center — The field operating agency of the national detainee
reporting center. It is the central tracing agency within the theater, responsible for
maintaining information on all detainees and their personal property within a theater of
operations or assigned area of operations. Also called TDRC. (JP 3-63)

theater distribution — The flow of personnel, equipment, and materiel within theater to
meet the geographic combatant commander’s missions. See also distribution;
theater; theater distribution system. (JP 4-01.4)

theater distribution management — The function of optimizing the distribution networks
to achieve the effective and efficient flow of personnel, equipment, and materiel to
meet the combatant commander’s requirements. See also distribution; theater;
theater distribution. (JP 4-01.4)

theater distribution system — A distribution system comprised of four independent and
mutually supported networks within theater to meet the geographic combatant
commander’s requirements: the physical network; the financial network; the
information network; and the communications network. See also distribution;
distribution plan; distribution system; theater; theater distribution. (JP 4-01)

theater event system — Architecture for reporting theater ballistic missile events,
composed of three independent processing and reporting elements: the joint tactical
ground stations, tactical detection and reporting, and the space-based infrared system
mission control station. Also called TES. (JP 3-14)

theater hospitalization capability — Essential care and health service support capabilities
to either return the patient to duty and/or stabilization to ensure the patient can tolerate
evacuation to a definitive care facility outside the theater. It includes modular hospital
configurations required to support the theater (emergency medical services, surgical
services, primary care, veterinary services, dental services, preventive medicine, and
combat and operational stress control, blood banking services, hospitalization,
laboratory and pharmacy services, radiology, medical logistics and other medical
specialty capabilities as required). (JP 4-02)

theater missile — A missile, which may be a ballistic missile, a cruise missile, or an air-tosurface
missile (not including short-range, non-nuclear, direct fire missiles, bombs, or
rockets such as Maverick or wire-guided missiles), whose target is within a given
theater of operation. Also called TM. (JP 3-01)

theater of operations — An operational area defined by the geographic combatant
commander for the conduct or support of specific military operations. Multiple theaters
of operations normally will be geographically separate and focused on different
missions. Theaters of operations are usually of significant size, allowing for operations
in depth and over extended periods of time. Also called TO. See also theater of war.
(JP 3-0)

theater of war — Defined by the Secretary of Defense or the geographic combatant
commander, the area of air, land, and water that is, or may become, directly involved in
the conduct of the war. A theater of war does not normally encompass the geographic
combatant commander’s entire area of responsibility and may contain more than one
theater of operations. See also area of responsibility; theater of operations. (JP 3-0)

theater patient movement requirements center — The activity responsible for
intratheater patient movement management (medical regulating and aeromedical
evacuation scheduling), the development of theater-level patient movement plans and
schedules, the monitoring and execution in concert with the Global Patient Movement
Requirements Center. Also called TPMRC. (JP 4-02)

theater special operations command — A subordinate unified or other joint command
established by a joint force commander to plan, coordinate, conduct, and support joint
special operations within the joint force commander’s assigned operational area. Also
called TSOC. See also special operations. (JP 3-05.1)

theater strategy — Concepts and courses of action directed toward securing the objectives
of national and multinational policies and strategies through the synchronized and
integrated employment of military forces and other instruments of national power. See
also National Military Strategy; National Security Strategy; strategy. (JP 3-0)

theater support contract — A type of contingency contract that is awarded by contracting
officers in the operational area serving under the direct contracting authority of the
Service component, special operations force command, or designated joint head of
contracting activity for the designated contingency operation. See also external
support contract; systems support contract. (JP 4-10)

thermal crossover — The natural phenomenon that normally occurs twice daily when
temperature conditions are such that there is a loss of contrast between two adjacent
objects on infrared imagery.

thermal energy — The energy emitted from the fireball as thermal radiation. The total
amount of thermal energy received per unit area at a specified distance from a nuclear
explosion is generally expressed in terms of calories per square centimeter.

thermal exposure — The total normal component of thermal radiation striking a given
surface throughout the course of a detonation; expressed in calories per square
centimeter or megajoules per square meter.

thermal imagery — (*) Imagery produced by sensing and recording the thermal energy
emitted or reflected from the objects which are imaged.

thermal pulse — The radiant power versus time pulse from a nuclear weapon detonation.

thermal radiation — (*) 1. The heat and light produced by a nuclear explosion. 2. (DOD
only) Electromagnetic radiations emitted from a heat or light source as a consequence
of its temperature; it consists essentially of ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiations.

thermal shadow — (*) The tone contrast difference of infrared linescan imagery which is
caused by a thermal gradient which persists as a result of a shadow of an object which
has been moved.

thermal X-rays — (*) The electromagnetic radiation, mainly in the soft (low-energy)
X-ray region, emitted by the debris of a nuclear weapon by virtue of its extremely high

thermonuclear — An adjective referring to the process (or processes) in which very high
temperatures are used to bring about the fusion of light nuclei with the accompanying
release of energy.

thermonuclear weapon — (*) A weapon in which very high temperatures are used to
bring about the fusion of light nuclei such as those of hydrogen isotopes (e.g.,
deuterium and tritium) with the accompanying release of energy. The high
temperatures required are obtained by means of fission.

thorough decontamination — Decontamination carried out by a unit, with or without
external support, to reduce contamination on personnel, equipment, materiel, and/or
working areas equal to natural background or to the lowest possible levels, to permit
the partial or total removal of individual protective equipment and to maintain
operations with minimum degradation. This may include terrain decontamination
beyond the scope of operational decontamination. See also immediate
decontamination; operational decontamination. (JP 3-11)

threat analysis — In antiterrorism, a continual process of compiling and examining all
available information concerning potential terrorist activities by terrorist groups which
could target a facility. A threat analysis will review the factors of a terrorist group’s
existence, capability, intentions, history, and targeting, as well as the security
environment within which friendly forces operate. Threat analysis is an essential step
in identifying probability of terrorist attack and results in a threat assessment. See also
antiterrorism. (JP 3-07.2)

threat and vulnerability assessment — In antiterrorism, the pairing of a facility’s threat
analysis and vulnerability analysis. See also antiterrorism. (JP 3-07.2)

threat identification and assessment — The Joint Operation Planning and Execution
System function that provides: timely warning of potential threats to US interests;
intelligence collection requirements; the effects of environmental, physical, and health
hazards, and cultural factors on friendly and enemy operations; and determines the
enemy military posture and possible intentions.

threat-oriented munitions — (*) In stockpile planning, munitions intended to neutralize a
finite assessed threat and for which the total requirement is determined by an agreed
mathematical model. See also level-of-effort munitions.

threat warning — The urgent communication and acknowledgement of time-critical
information essential for the preservation of life and/or vital resources. (JP 2-01)

threshold — (*) The beginning of that portion of the runway usable for landing.

throughput — 1. In transportation, the average quantity of cargo and passengers that can
pass through a port on a daily basis from arrival at the port to loading onto a ship or
plane, or from the discharge from a ship or plane to the exit (clearance) from the port
complex. Throughput is usually expressed in measurement tons, short tons, or
passengers. Reception and storage limitation may affect final throughput. 2. In patient
movement and care, the maximum number of patients (stable or stabilized) by
category, that can be received at the airport, staged, transported, and received at the
proper hospital within any 24-hour period. (JP 4-02)

tie down diagram — (*) A drawing indicating the prescribed method of securing a
particular item of cargo within a specific type of vehicle.

tie down point — (*) An attachment point provided on or within a vehicle for securing

tie down point pattern — (*) The pattern of tie down points within a vehicle.

tilt angle — (*) The angle between the optical axis of an air camera and the vertical at the
time of exposure.

time-definite delivery — The consistent delivery of requested logistic support at a time and
destination specified by the receiving activity. See also logistic support. (JP 4-0)

time fuze — (*) A fuze which contains a graduated time element to regulate the time
interval after which the fuze will function.

time interval — Duration of a segment of time without reference to when the time interval
begins or ends. Time intervals may be given in seconds of time or fractions thereof.

time of attack — The hour at which the attack is to be launched. If a line of departure is
prescribed, it is the hour at which the line is to be crossed by the leading elements of the

time of delivery — The time at which the addressee or responsible relay agency receipts for
a message.

time of flight — In artillery, mortar, and naval gunfire support, the time in seconds from the
instant a weapon is fired, launched, or released from the delivery vehicle or weapons
system to the instant it strikes or detonates.

time of origin — The time at which a message is released for transmission.

time of receipt — The time at which a receiving station completes reception of a message.

time on target — 1. Time at which aircraft are scheduled to attack/photograph the target. 2.
The actual time at which aircraft attack/photograph the target. 3. The time at which a
nuclear detonation as planned at a specified desired ground zero. Also called TOT.
(JP 3-09.3)

time over target conflict — A situation wherein two or more delivery vehicles are
scheduled such that their proximity violates the established separation criteria for yield,
time, distance, or all three.

time over target (nuclear) — See time on target — Part 3.

time-phased force and deployment data — The Joint Operation Planning and Execution
System database portion of an operation plan; it contains time-phased force data, nonunit-
related cargo and personnel data, and movement data for the operation plan,
including the following: a. In-place units; b. Units to be deployed to support the
operation plan with a priority indicating the desired sequence for their arrival at the port
of debarkation; c. Routing of forces to be deployed; d. Movement data associated
with deploying forces; e. Estimates of non-unit-related cargo and personnel
movements to be conducted concurrently with the deployment of forces; and f.
Estimate of transportation requirements that must be fulfilled by common-user lift
resources as well as those requirements that can be fulfilled by assigned or attached
transportation resources. Also called TPFDD. See also time-phased force and
deployment data maintenance; time-phased force and deployment data
refinement; time-phased force and deployment list. (JP 5-0)

time-phased force and deployment data maintenance — The deliberate planning process
that requires a supported commander to incorporate changes to time-phased force and
deployment data (TPFDD) that occur after the TPFDD becomes effective for
execution. TPFDD maintenance is conducted by the supported combatant commander
in coordination with the supporting combatant commanders, Service components, US
Transportation Command, and other agencies as required. At designated intervals,
changes to data in the TPFDD, including force structure, standard reference files, and
Services’ type unit characteristics files, are updated in Joint Operation Planning and
Execution System (JOPES) to ensure currency of deployment data. TPFDD
maintenance may also be used to update the TPFDD for Chairman of the Joint Chiefs
of Staff or Joint Strategic Capabilities Plan submission in lieu of refinement during the
JOPES plan development phase. Also called TPFDD maintenance. See also timephased
force and deployment data; time-phased force and deployment data
refinement; time-phased force and deployment list.

time-phased force and deployment data refinement — For both global and regional
operation plan development, the process consists of several discrete phases time-phased
force and deployment data (TPFDD) that may be conducted sequentially or
concurrently, in whole or in part. These phases are concept, plan development, and
review. The plan development phase consists of several subphases: forces, logistics,
and transportation, with shortfall identification associated with each phase. The plan
development phases are collectively referred to as TPFDD refinement. The normal
TPFDD refinement process consists of sequentially refining force, logistic
(non-unit-related personnel and sustainment), and transportation data to develop a
TPFDD file that supports a feasible and adequate overlapping of several refinement
phases. The decision is made by the supported commander, unless otherwise directed
by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. For global planning, refinement
conferences are conducted by the Joint Staff in conjunction with US Transportation
Command. TPFDD refinement is conducted in coordination with supported and
supporting commanders, Services, the Joint Staff, and other supporting agencies.
Commander in Chief, US Transportation Command, will normally host refinement
conferences at the request of the Joint Staff or the supported commander. Also called
TPFDD refinement. See also time-phased force and deployment data;
time-phased force and deployment data maintenance; time-phased force and
deployment list.

time-phased force and deployment list — Appendix 1 to Annex A of the operation plan.
It identifies types and/or actual units required to support the operation plan and
indicates origin and ports of debarkation or ocean area. It may also be generated as a
computer listing from the time-phased force and deployment data. Also called
TPFDL. See also Joint Operation Planning and Execution System; time-phased
force and deployment data; time-phased force and deployment data maintenance;
time-phased force and deployment data refinement. (JP 4-01.5)

times — (C-, D-, M-days end at 2400 hours Universal Time (Zulu time) and are assumed to
be 24 hours long for planning.) The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff normally
coordinates the proposed date with the commanders of the appropriate unified and
specified commands, as well as any recommended changes to C-day. L-hour will be
established per plan, crisis, or theater of operations and will apply to both air and
surface movements. Normally, L-hour will be established to allow C-day to be a 24-
hour day. a. C-day. The unnamed day on which a deployment operation commences
or is to commence. The deployment may be movement of troops, cargo, weapon
systems, or a combination of these elements using any or all types of transport. The
letter “C” will be the only one used to denote the above. The highest command or
headquarters responsible for coordinating the planning will specify the exact meaning
of C-day within the aforementioned definition. The command or headquarters directly
responsible for the execution of the operation, if other than the one coordinating the
planning, will do so in light of the meaning specified by the highest command or
headquarters coordinating the planning. b. D-day. The unnamed day on which a
particular operation commences or is to commence. c. F-hour. The effective time of
announcement by the Secretary of Defense to the Military Departments of a decision to
mobilize Reserve units. d. H-hour. The specific hour on D-day at which a particular
operation commences. e. H-hour (amphibious operations). For amphibious
operations, the time the first assault elements are scheduled to touch down on the
beach, or a landing zone, and in some cases the commencement of countermine
breaching operations. f. L-hour. The specific hour on C-day at which a deployment
operation commences or is to commence. g. L-hour (amphibious operations). In
amphibious operations, the time at which the first helicopter of the helicopter-borne
assault wave touches down in the landing zone. h. M-day. The term used to designate
the unnamed day on which full mobilization commences or is due to commence. i. Nday.
The unnamed day an active duty unit is notified for deployment or redeployment.
j. R-day. Redeployment day. The day on which redeployment of major combat,
combat support, and combat service support forces begins in an operation. k. S-day.
The day the President authorizes Selective Reserve callup (not more than 200,000). l.
T-day. The effective day coincident with Presidential declaration of national
emergency and authorization of partial mobilization (not more than 1,000,000
personnel exclusive of the 200,000 callup). m. W-day. Declared by the President, Wday
is associated with an adversary decision to prepare for war (unambiguous strategic

time-sensitive target — A joint force commander designated target requiring immediate
response because it is a highly lucrative, fleeting target of opportunity or it poses (or
will soon pose) a danger to friendly forces. Also called TST. (JP 3-60)

time slot — (*) Period of time during which certain activities are governed by specific

time to target — The number of minutes and seconds to elapse before aircraft ordnance
impacts on target. Also called TTT. (JP 3-09.3)

tip — See pitch.

tips — External fuel tanks.

title block — See information box.

TNT equivalent — (*) A measure of the energy released from the detonation of a nuclear
weapon, or from the explosion of a given quantity of fissionable material, in terms of
the amount of TNT (trinitrotoluene) which could release the same amount of energy
when exploded.

tolerance dose — The amount of radiation that may be received by an individual within a
specified period with negligible results.

tone down — See attenuation.

tophandler — A device specially designed to permit the lifting and handling of containers
from the top with rough terrain container handlers. See also container. (JP 4-01.6)

topographic base — See chart base.

topographic map — A map that presents the vertical position of features in measurable
form as well as their horizontal positions. See also map.

topography — The configuration of the ground to include its relief and all features.
Topography addresses both dry land and the sea floor (underwater topography).
(JP 4-01.6)

top secret — See security classification.

torpedo defense net — (*) A net employed to close an inner harbor to torpedoes fired from
seaward or to protect an individual ship at anchor or underway.
torture — As defined by Title 18, US Code, Section 2340, it is any act committed by a
person acting under color of law specifically intended to inflict severe physical or
mental pain or suffering (other than pain or suffering incidental to lawful sanctions)
upon another person within his custody or physical control. “Severe mental pain or
suffering” means the prolonged mental harm caused by or resulting from: (a) the
intentional infliction or threatened infliction of severe physical pain or suffering; (b) the
administration or application, or threatened administration or application, of mindaltering
substances or other procedures calculated to disrupt profoundly the senses or
personality; (c) the threat of imminent death; or (d) the threat that another person will
imminently be subjected to death, severe physical pain or suffering, or the
administration or application of mind-altering substances or other procedures calculated
to disrupt profoundly the senses or personality. (JP 2-01.2)

toss bombing — A method of bombing where an aircraft flies on a line towards the target,
pulls up in a vertical plane, releasing the bomb at an angle that will compensate for the
effect of gravity drop on the bomb. Similar to loft bombing; unrestricted as to altitude.
See also loft bombing.

total active aircraft authorization — The sum of the primary and backup aircraft

total active aircraft inventory — The sum of the primary and backup aircraft assigned to
meet the total active aircraft authorization.

total dosage attack — (*) A chemical operation which does not involve a time limit within
which to produce the required toxic level.

total materiel assets — The total quantity of an item available in the military system
worldwide and all funded procurement of the item with adjustments to provide for
transfers out of or into the inventory through the appropriation and procurement
lead-time periods. It includes peacetime force materiel assets and war reserve stock.

total materiel requirement — The sum of the peacetime force material requirement and
the war reserve material requirement.

total mobilization — See mobilization.

total overall aircraft inventory — The sum of the total active aircraft inventory and the
inactive aircraft inventory. Also called TOAI.

total pressure — (*) The sum of dynamic and static pressures.

touchdown zone — (*) 1. For fixed wing aircraft — The first 3,000 feet or 1,000 meters
of runway beginning at the threshold. 2. For rotary wings and vectored thrust aircraft
— That portion of the helicopter landing area or runway used for landing.

toxic chemical, biological, or radiological attack — An attack directed at personnel,
animals, or crops, using injurious agents of chemical, biological, or radiological origin.

toxic industrial biological — Any biological material manufactured, used, transported, or
stored by industrial, medical, or commercial processes which could pose an infectious
or toxic threat. Also called TIB. (JP 3-11)

toxic industrial chemical — A chemical developed or manufactured for use in industrial
operations or research by industry, government, or academia. For example: pesticides,
petrochemicals, fertilizers, corrosives, poisons, etc. These chemicals are not primarily
manufactured for the specific purpose of producing human casualties or rendering
equipment, facilities, or areas dangerous for human use. Hydrogen cyanide, cyanogen
chloride, phosgene, and chloropicrin are industrial chemicals that also can be military
chemical agents. Also called TIC. (JP 3-11)

toxic industrial material — A generic term for toxic or radioactive substances in solid,
liquid, aerosolized, or gaseous form that may be used, or stored for use, for industrial,
commercial, medical, military, or domestic purposes. Toxic industrial material may be
chemical, biological, or radioactive and described as toxic industrial chemical, toxic
industrial biological, or toxic industrial radiological. Also called TIM. (JP 3-11)

toxic industrial radiological — Any radiological material manufactured, used, transported,
or stored by industrial, medical, or commercial processes. For example: spent fuel
rods, medical sources, etc. Also called TIR. (JP 3-11)

toxin — Poisonous substances that may be produced naturally (by bacteria, plants, fungi,
snakes, insects, and other living organisms) or synthetically. (JP 3-11)

track — 1. A series of related contacts displayed on a data display console or other display
device. 2. To display or record the successive positions of a moving object. 3. To lock
onto a point of radiation and obtain guidance therefrom. 4. To keep a gun properly
aimed, or to point continuously a target-locating instrument at a moving target. 5. The
actual path of an aircraft above or a ship on the surface of the Earth. The course is the
path that is planned; the track is the path that is actually taken. 6. One of the two
endless belts on which a full-track or half-track vehicle runs. 7. A metal part forming a
path for a moving object; e.g., the track around the inside of a vehicle for moving a
mounted machine gun.

track correlation — Correlating track information for identification purposes using all
available data.

tracking. Precise and continuous position-finding of targets by radar, optical, or other
means. (JP 3-07.4)

track management — Defined set of procedures whereby the commander ensures accurate
friendly and enemy unit and/or platform locations, and a dissemination procedure for
filtering, combining, and passing that information to higher, adjacent, and subordinate

track of interest — In counterdrug operations, contacts that meet the initial sorting criteria
applicable in the area where the contacts are detected. Also called TOI. See also
suspect. (JP 3-07.4)

track production area — (*) An area in which tracks are produced by one radar station.

track symbology — (*) Symbols used to display tracks on a data display console or other
display device.

track telling — The process of communicating air surveillance and tactical data
information between command and control systems or between facilities within the
systems. Telling may be classified into the following types: back tell; cross tell;
forward tell; lateral tell; overlap tell; and relateral tell.

trafficability — Capability of terrain to bear traffic. It refers to the extent to which the
terrain will permit continued movement of any or all types of traffic.

traffic circulation map — A map showing traffic routes and the measures for traffic
regulation. It indicates the roads for use of certain classes of traffic, the location of
traffic control stations, and the directions in which traffic may move. Also called
circulation map. See also map.

traffic control police — Any persons ordered by a military commander and/or by national
authorities to facilitate the movement of traffic and to prevent and/or report any breach
of road traffic regulations.

traffic density — (*) The average number of vehicles that occupy one mile or one
kilometer of road space, expressed in vehicles per mile or per kilometer.

traffic flow — (*) The total number of vehicles passing a given point in a given time.
Traffic flow is expressed as vehicles per hour.

traffic flow security — The protection resulting from features, inherent in some
cryptoequipment, that conceal the presence of valid messages on a communications
circuit, normally achieved by causing the circuit to appear busy at all times.

traffic information (radar) — Information issued to alert an aircraft to any radar targets
observed on the radar display that may be in such proximity to its position or intended
route of flight to warrant its attention.

traffic management — The direction, control, and supervision of all functions incident to
the procurement and use of freight and passenger transportation services.

traffic pattern — The traffic flow that is prescribed for aircraft landing at, taxiing on, and
taking off from an airport. The usual components of a traffic pattern are upwind leg,
crosswind leg, downwind leg, base leg, and final approach.

train — 1. A service force or group of service elements that provides logistic support, e.g.,
an organization of naval auxiliary ships or merchant ships or merchant ships attached to
a fleet for this purpose; similarly, the vehicles and operating personnel that furnish
supply, evacuation, and maintenance services to a land unit. 2. Bombs dropped in
short intervals or sequence.

trained strength in units — Those reservists assigned to units who have completed initial
active duty for training of 12 weeks or its equivalent and are eligible for deployment
overseas on land when mobilized under proper authority. Excludes personnel in
non-deployable accounts or a training pipeline.

train headway — The interval of time between two trains boarded by the same unit at the
same point.

training aids — Any item developed or procured with the primary intent that it shall assist
in training and the process of learning.

training and readiness oversight — The authority that combatant commanders may
exercise over assigned Reserve Component forces when not on active duty or when on
active duty for training. As a matter of Department of Defense policy, this authority
includes: a. Providing guidance to Service component commanders on operational
requirements and priorities to be addressed in Military Department training and
readiness programs; b. Commenting on Service component program recommendations
and budget requests; c. Coordinating and approving participation by assigned Reserve
Component forces in joint exercises and other joint training when on active duty for
training or performing inactive duty for training; d. Obtaining and reviewing readiness
and inspection reports on assigned Reserve Component forces; and e. Coordinating and
reviewing mobilization plans (including post-mobilization training activities and
deployability validation procedures) developed for assigned Reserve Component
forces. Also called TRO. See also combatant commander. (JP 1)

training and retirement category — The category identifying (by specific training and
retirement category designator) a reservist’s training or retirement status in a reserve
component category and Reserve Component.

training-pay category — A designation identifying the number of days of training and pay
required for members of Reserve Components.

training period — An authorized and scheduled regular inactive duty training period. A
training period must be at least two hours for retirement point credit and four hours for
pay. Previously used interchangeably with other common terms such as drills, drill
period, assemblies, periods of instruction, etc.

training pipeline — A Reserve Component category designation that identifies untrained
officer and enlisted personnel who have not completed initial active duty for training of
12 weeks or its equivalent. See also nondeployable account.

training unit — A unit established to provide military training to individual reservists or to
Reserve Component units.

train path — (*) In railway terminology, the timing of a possible movement of a train
along a given route. All the train paths on a given route constitute a timetable.

trajectory — See ballistic trajectory.

transattack period — 1. In nuclear warfare, the period from the initiation of the attack to
its termination. 2. As applied to the Single Integrated Operational Plan, the period that
extends from execution (or enemy attack, whichever is sooner) to termination of the
Single Integrated Operational Plan. See also postattack period.

transfer loader — (*) A wheeled or tracked vehicle with a platform capable of vertical and
horizontal adjustment used in the loading and unloading of aircraft, ships, or other

transient — 1. Personnel, ships, or craft stopping temporarily at a post, station, or port to
which they are not assigned or attached, and having destination elsewhere. 2. An
independent merchant ship calling at a port and sailing within 12 hours, and for which
routing instructions to a further port have been promulgated. 3. An individual awaiting
orders, transport, etc., at a post or station to which he or she is not attached or assigned.

transient forces — Forces that pass or stage through, or base temporarily within, the
operational area of another command but are not under its operational control. See also
force; transient. (JP 1)

transit area — See staging area.

transit bearing — (*) A bearing determined by noting the time at which two features on
the Earth’s surface have the same relative bearing.

transition altitude — The altitude at or below which the vertical position of an aircraft is
controlled by reference to true altitude.

transition layer — (*) The airspace between the transition altitude and the transition level.

transition level — (*) The lowest flight level available for use above the transition altitude.
See also altitude; transition altitude.

transit passage — The nonsuspendable right of continuous and expeditious navigation
and/or overflight in the normal mode through an international strait linking one part of
the high seas (or exclusive economic zone) with another.

transit route — A sea route which crosses open waters normally joining two coastal
routes. (JP 3-07.4)

transit zone — The path taken by either airborne or seaborne smugglers. Zone can include
transfer operations to another carrier (airdrop, at-sea transfer, etc.). See also arrival
zone. (JP 3-07.4)

transmission factor (nuclear) — The ratio of the dose inside the shielding material to the
outside (ambient) dose. Transmission factor is used to calculate the dose received
through the shielding material. See also half thickness; shielding.

transmission security — The component of communications security that results from all
measures designed to protect transmissions from interception and exploitation by
means other than cryptanalysis. See also communications security. (JP 6-0)

transonic — (*) Of or pertaining to the speed of a body in a surrounding fluid when the
relative speed of the fluid is subsonic in some places and supersonic in others. This is
encountered when passing from subsonic to supersonic speed and vice versa. See also
speed of sound.

transponder — (*) A receiver-transmitter which will generate a reply signal, upon proper
interrogation. See also responsor.

transportability — The capability of material to be moved by towing, self-propulsion, or
carrier via any means, such as railways, highways, waterways, pipelines, oceans, and

transport aircraft — (*) Aircraft designed primarily for the carriage of personnel and/or
cargo. Transport aircraft may be classed according to range, as follows: a.
Short-range — Not to exceed 1200 nautical miles at normal cruising conditions (2222
km). b. Medium-range — Between 1200 and 3500 nautical miles at normal cruising
conditions (2222 and 6482 km). c. Long-range — Exceeds 3500 nautical miles at
normal cruising conditions (6482 km). See also strategic transport aircraft; tactical
transport aircraft.

transport area — In amphibious operations, an area assigned to a transport organization for
the purpose of debarking troops and equipment. See also inner transport area; outer
transport area.

transportation closure — The actual arrival date of a specified movement requirement at
port of debarkation.

transportation component command — The three component commands of United States
Transportation Command: Air Force Air Mobility Command, Navy Military Sealift
Command, and Army Surface Deployment and Distribution Command. Each
transportation component command remains a major command of its parent Service
and continues to organize, train, and equip its forces as specified by law. Each
transportation component command also continues to perform Service-unique missions.
Also called TCC. See also United States Transportation Command. (JP 4-01.6)

transportation emergency — A situation created by a shortage of normal transportation
capability and of a magnitude sufficient to frustrate military movement requirements,
and which requires extraordinary action by the President or other designated authority
to ensure continued movement of essential Department of Defense traffic.

transportation feasibility — Operation plans and operation plans in concept format are
considered transportation feasible when the capability to move forces, equipment, and
supplies exists from the point of origin to the final destination according to the plan.
Transportation feasibility determination will require concurrent analysis and assessment
of available strategic and theater lift assets, transportation infrastructure, and competing
demands and restrictions. a. The supported commander of a combatant command will
analyze deployment, joint reception, staging, onward movement, and integration
(JRSOI), and theater distribution of forces, equipment, and supplies to final destination.
b. Supporting combatant commanders will provide an assessment on movement of
forces from point of origin to aerial port of embarkation and/or seaport of embarkation.
c. The Commander, United States Transportation Command will assess the strategic
leg of the time-phased force and deployment data for transportation feasibility,
indicating to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and supported combatant
commander that movements arrive at the port of debarkation consistent with the
supported combatant commander’s assessment of JRSOI and theater distribution. d.
Following analysis of all inputs, the supported combatant commander is responsible for
declaring a plan end-to-end executable. See also operation plan.

transportation movement requirement — The need for transport of units, personnel, or
materiel from a specified origin to a specified destination within a specified timeframe.
(JP 4-01)

transportation operating agencies — Those Federal agencies having responsibilities under
national emergency conditions for the operational direction of one or more forms of
transportation. Also called federal modal agencies; federal transport agencies.

transportation priorities — Indicators assigned to eligible traffic that establish its
movement precedence. Appropriate priority systems apply to the movement of traffic
by sea and air. In times of emergency, priorities may be applicable to continental
United States movements by land, water, or air.

transportation system — All the land, water, and air routes and transportation assets
engaged in the movement of US forces and their supplies across the range of military
operations, involving both mature and immature theaters and at the strategic,
operational, and tactical levels of war. (JP 4-0)

transport control center (air transport) — The operations center through which the air
transport force commander exercises control over the air transport system.

transport group — An element that directly deploys and supports the landing of the
landing force (LF), and is functionally designated as a transport group in the
amphibious task force organization. A transport group provides for the embarkation,
movement to the objective, landing, and logistic support of the LF. Transport groups
comprise all sealift and airlift in which the LF is embarked. They are categorized as
follows: a. airlifted groups; b. Navy amphibious ship transport groups; and c.
strategic sealift shipping groups. (JP 3-02.2)

transporting (ordnance) — The movement or repositioning of ordnance or explosive
devices along established explosive routes (does not apply to the aircraft flight line).
See also ordnance. (JP 3-04)

transshipment point — (*) A location where material is transferred between vehicles.

traverse — (*) 1. To turn a weapon to the right or left on its mount. 2. A method of
surveying in which lengths and directions of lines between points on the earth are
obtained by or from field measurements, and used in determining positions of the

traverse level — (*) That vertical displacement above low-level air defense systems,
expressed both as a height and altitude, at which aircraft can cross the area.

traverse racking test load value — Externally applied force in pounds or kilograms at the
top-corner fitting that will strain or stretch end structures of the container sideways.
(JP 4-01.7)

treason — Violation of the allegiance owed to one’s sovereign or state; betrayal of one’s

trend — The straying of the fall of shot, such as might be caused by incorrect speed settings
of the fire support ship.

triangulation station — (*) A point on the Earth, the position of which is determined by
triangulation. Also called trig point.

tri-camera photography — (*) Photography obtained by simultaneous exposure of three
cameras systematically disposed in the air vehicle at fixed overlapping angles relative
to each other in order to cover a wide field. See also fan camera photography.

trig list — A list published by certain Army units that includes essential information of
accurately located survey points.

trim — The difference in draft at the bow and stern of a vessel or the manner in which a
vessel floats in the water based on the distribution of cargo, stores and ballast aboard
the vessel. See also draft; watercraft. (JP 4-01.6)

triple point — The intersection of the incident, reflected, and fused (or Mach) shock fronts
accompanying an air burst. The height of the triple point above the surface, i.e., the
height of the Mach stem, increases with increasing distance from a given explosion.

troop basis — An approved list of those military units and individuals (including civilians)
required for the performance of a particular mission by numbers, organization and
equipment and, in the case of larger commands, by deployment.

troops — A collective term for uniformed military personnel (usually not applicable to
naval personnel afloat). See also airborne troops; combat service support elements;
combat support troops; service troops; tactical troops.

troop safety (nuclear) — An element that defines a distance from the proposed burst
location beyond which personnel meeting the criteria described under degree of risk
will be safe to the degree prescribed. It is expressed as a combination of a degree of risk
and vulnerability category. See also emergency risk (nuclear); negligible risk
(nuclear); unwarned exposed; warned protected.

troop space cargo — Cargo such as sea or barracks bags, bedding rolls or hammocks,
locker trunks, and office equipment, normally stowed in an accessible place. This
cargo will also include normal hand-carried combat equipment and weapons to be
carried ashore by the assault troops.

troop test — A test conducted in the field for the purpose of evaluating operational or
organizational concepts, doctrine, tactics, and techniques, or to gain further information
on material. See also service test.

tropical storm — A tropical cyclone in which the surface wind speed is at least 34, but not
more than 63 knots.

tropopause — (*) The transition zone between the stratosphere and the troposphere. The
tropopause normally occurs at an altitude of about 25,000 to 45,000 feet (8 to 15
kilometers) in polar and temperate zones, and at 55,000 feet (20 kilometers) in the

true airspeed indicator — An instrument which displays the speed of the aircraft relative
to the ambient air.

true altitude — The height of an aircraft as measured from mean sea level.

true bearing — The direction to an object from a point; expressed as a horizontal angle
measured clockwise from true north.

true convergence — The angle at which one meridian is inclined to another on the surface
of the Earth. See also convergence.

true horizon — (*) 1. The boundary of a horizontal plane passing through a point of
vision. 2. In photogrammetry, the boundary of a horizontal plane passing through the
perspective center of a lens system.

true north — (*) The direction from an observer’s position to the geographic North Pole.
The north direction of any geographic meridian.

turbojet — A jet engine whose air is supplied by a turbine-driven compressor, the turbine
being activated by exhaust gases.

turnaround — (*) The length of time between arriving at a point and being ready to depart
from that point. It is used in this sense for the loading, unloading, re-fueling, and
re-arming, where appropriate, of vehicles, aircraft, and ships. See also turnaround

turnaround cycle — (*) A term used in conjunction with vehicles, ships, and aircraft, and
comprising the following: loading time at departure point; time to and from destination;
unloading and loading time at destination; unloading time at returning point; planned
maintenance time; and, where applicable, time awaiting facilities. See also

turning movement — (*) A variation of the envelopment in which the attacking force
passes around or over the enemy’s principal defensive positions to secure objectives
deep in the enemy’s rear to force the enemy to abandon his position or divert major
forces to meet the threat.

turning point — (*) In land mine warfare, a point on the centerline of a mine strip or row
where it changes direction.

turn-off guidance — Information which enables the pilot of a landing aircraft to select and
follow the correct taxiway from the time the aircraft leaves the runway until it may
safely be brought to a halt clear of the active runway.

two-person control — The continuous surveillance and control of positive control material
at all times by a minimum of two authorized individuals, each capable of detecting
incorrect or unauthorized procedures with respect to the task being performed and each
familiar with established security requirements. Also called TPC.

two-person rule — A system designed to prohibit access by an individual to nuclear
weapons and certain designated components by requiring the presence at all times of at
least two authorized persons, each capable of detecting incorrect or unauthorized
procedures with respect to the task to be performed.

types of burst — See airburst; fallout safe height of burst; height of burst; high
airburst; high altitude burst; low airburst; nuclear airburst; nuclear
exoatmospheric burst; nuclear contact-surface burst; nuclear proximity-surface
burst; nuclear underground burst; nuclear underwater burst; optimum height of
burst; safe burst height.

type unit — A type of organizational or functional entity established within the Armed
Forces and uniquely identified by a five-character, alphanumeric code called a unit type

type unit data file — A file that provides standard planning data and movement
characteristics for personnel, cargo, and accompanying supplies associated with type



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